Our home planet Earth is a rocky, terrestrial planet. It has a solid and active surface with mountains, valleys, canyons, plains and so much more. Earth is special because it is an ocean planet. Water covers 70% of Earth’s surface.…
Two NASA spacecrafts, one studying systems of Saturn, another observing Mercury, at the same time will arrive on the taken-away place to photograph Earth, on July 19 and 20. The Cassini spacecraft will take the picture from system between 5:27 and 5:42 evenings of EDT (2:27 and 2:42 PDT or 21:27 and 21:47 UTC) on Friday, July 19. The Cassini spacecraft will be at distance about 900 million kilometers from Earth. NASA urges the population to pose “in style of a wave” in the direction of Saturn during this portrait shooting and then shares the photos on the Internet. Earth photos with the Cassini spacecraft, will be part of more extensive mosaic of systems of Saturn. Processing of images of Earth, as expected, will take some days, and processing of a full mosaic of system of Saturn can take some weeks.
On Earth began the magnetic storm. The index of geomagnetic indignations of Kp in the morning on Saturday reached value 5. 5 is a minimum level which is considered the magnetic storm, and then the index rose to 6. The reason of geomagnetic indignations can be the stream of a high-speed solar wind. The stream is the loaded particles which source is the coronal hole on the Sun (rather dark area on a solar disk with open lines of a magnetic field). This hole was noticed in pictures from the “Stereo” probe on the invisible part of the Sun 10 days ago. Then scientists predicted that on June 28-29 when it comes to our part, the magnetic storm of moderate force can begin.
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The loaded particles, which have been thrown out by the Sun during four powerful solar flares in previous days, reached to the Earth. The American GOES satellites fix growth of concentration of protons in near-earth space. The weak proton solar flare testify the forecast of the center of space weather of National administration of oceanic and atmospheric researches of the USA (NOAA) These are the remains of streams, which were injected by earlier active area 1748 at east edge of the Sun. The main streams passed by. The astronomers don’t expect any dangerous phenomena. Since Monday on the Sun there were four powerful x-ray flashes of the highest class X, which weren’t observed since October, 2012. Each such solar flare was accompanied by emissions of solar plasma and the loaded particles of high energy. Their source is group of 1748 spots, which was at east edge of the Sun therefore emissions took place and passes by the Earth, and won’t cause magnetic storms.
Scientists consider that asteroids were a source of water on the Moon and in Earth . Astronomers analyzed isotope structure of samples of a deep cloak of the Moon, delivered by mission “Appolo” to the Earth, and came to a conclusion that water molecules in them and in a matter of Earth come from the same source, which most likely were asteroids. It is considered, that the Moon was formed as a result of collision of a protoplanetary body, with Earth “germ”. Collision led to emission of a matter of hot cloud of debris and proto-Earth in space, from which was created the Moon. This cataclysm was considered as the reason of why its subsoil and a surface are almost deprived of water. This hypothesis was called into question in February 2012, when scientists found unexpectedly high concentration of water in lunar magmatic breeds. Astronomers under the leadership of Erik Hauri from Carnegie’s Institute in Washington (USA) found one more argument against the classical theory of formation of the Moon, having analyzed isotope structure of breeds of its cloak.
The core of Earth was warmed up to the temperature of 6 thousand degrees Celsius, it is one thousand degrees more than the previous estimates; it allows to explain existence of a magnetic field at our planet that was difficult earlier. The lithosphere of Earth consists of three layers — crust, a cloak and a core. Studying of a core and cloak layers directly is impossible in practice because of deep water on which their breeds lie. Therefore scientists investigate properties of a subsoil of Earth, watching laboratory experiments with an ultrahigh pressure and temperature. The scientists from the Commissariat of nuclear power of France in Grenoble could calculate temperature of firm part of a core of Earth, having tracked how iron behaves with an ultrahigh pressure. For this purpose scientists developed an original technique, which allows illuminating an alloy in the camera of a high pressure with help of x-ray radiation. As scientists explain, their technique allows learning an aggregate state of an alloy, whether there was it liquid or remains a firm body. Similar data are necessary for studying of behavior of a matter of a core as temperature of melting and other properties of iron cardinally change with an ultrahigh pressure. The scientists used the technique for measurement of properties of a slice of iron, which was squeezed on 2,2 million atmospheres in a diamond anvil and is heated to 4,5 thousand degrees Celsius by means of a laser beam. Scientists used these data for temperature calculation in firm part of a core pressure in which reaches 3,3 million atmospheres. To their surprise, temperature in it reached 6-6,5 thousand degrees, that is one thousand more than the previous estimates.
Traditionally this day the actions are directed on ecological education and environment protection held. The Google logo is replaced on Monday with the interactive image of wildlife in development — mountains, the lake with small fishes, trees, animals, flowers. By pressing Play button on the virtual sun, it will begin the daily cycle. After end of one cycle the season — winter, spring, summer or fall changes. The user also can operate elements of doodle — to blow off dandelions, to cause a virtual rain or animals from a hole. The tradition to celebrate the Earth Day created in the USA at the initiative of the ecological activist of the Gay lord of Nelson, and for the first time the Earth Day was celebrated on April 22, 1970. 20 years later this day became the international action in which 200 million people from 141 countries of the world participated. In 2009 the General Assembly of the UN at the initiative of Bolivia proclaimed on April 22 in the International afternoon of Mother Earth.
According to the last statements of scientists, there is a high probability, that life existed long before emergence of the Earth, and, it is quite possible, and even outside our Solar system. Moore’s law says that the numbers of transistors, which take place on a crystal of the integrated scheme, will double each 24 months or two years. According to David Hausa’s forecasts from Intel, doubling of productivity of processors happens each 18 months, and the combination of growth of number of transistors and speed of each separate transistor becomes the reason for that. So, if to apply Moore’s law, and to use it for counting in the opposite direction, we’ll come to conclusion, that we come by 1965 when the first microchip was invented. Now two scientists-geneticists applied Moore’s law to the speed, with which life on Earth develops, developing into more and more difficult forms. As a result results which show were received, that organic life appeared even long before appearance of the Earth. Alexei Sharov from National institute of aging in Baltimore a little differently applied Moore’s law. It replaced transistors with nucleotides (DNA and RNA construction blocks) and made calculations.