The biggest black holes are growing faster than the rate of stars being formed in their galaxies, in accordance with two new studies using data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes. More than many years, astronomers have collected data on the arrangement of stars in galaxies and the growth of the biggest black holes (that is, those with millions or billions the mass of the Sun) in their centers.
The Sun is the star at the center of our solar system and is responsible for the Earth’s climate and weather. It is an almost perfect sphere with a difference of just 10km in diameter between the poles and the equator. The average radius of the Sun is 695,508 km (109.2 x that of the Earth) of which 20–25% is the core. Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit. Electric currents in the Sun generate a magnetic field that is carried out through the solar system by the solar wind. The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurorae. There are billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way Galaxy. Today we have prepared 10 awesome facts about the Sun that will arouse your curiosity.
A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars, stellar objects (such as brown dwarfs and neutron stars), an interstellar medium of gas and dust, black holes, and an unknown component of dark matter. Examples of galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million stars to giants with a hundred trillion stars or more, each orbiting through their galaxy.
For the first time Scientists from Great Britain could define color of a planet out of Solar system. With help of pictures from Hubble telescope they established that the gas giant in constellation of Chanterelle is painted in bright blue color. Thus they explained that as the reason of such coloring serve not water oceans, as on Earth, and the melted glass. Astronomers could define color of a planet, having tracked how the range depending on the provision of a planet in relation to the star changed. The first of them is- when the planet was closed from supervision by a star, and the second – when it was in a visibility range.
Astrophysics from the Southern European observatory (ESO) photographed a galaxy’s absorption of gas clouds surrounding it. The new data obtained with help of Very Large telescope (VLT) are remarkable that the galaxy is removed from Earth on distance more than ten billion light years. And respectively it is visible in that look in which was during an era of the young Universe. As at such distance the galaxy appears the smallest even at supervision through Very Large telescope (VLT), astronomers had to use indirect methods for an assessment of volume of absorption of gas and definition of details of process.
By calculations of scientists through 3 billion years has to happen the collision of our galaxy of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy. But astronomers think that the meeting will be not their first meeting. Hongsheng Zhao from Saint-Endru University (Great Britain) and his colleagues analyzed movement of the Andromeda galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, galaxies satellites of the Milky Way. They used the modified Newtonian loudspeaker (MoND). This theory developed by the Israeli scientist Mordechai Milgrom in 1983, explains expansion of the Universe without participation of dark matter. He noticed that the Newtonian force of gravitation works only for the bodies moving with rather big acceleration, and doesn’t operate on small accelerations. And therefore acceleration depends not linearly on the weight creating it for objects of level of galaxies and their congestions.
Scientists learned of what were constructed the first stars and galaxies of the Universe. Thanks to a radio telescope of CSIRO which is located in the Australian Observatory Parkes, astronomers could find the main construction material from which the first stars and galaxies of our Universe were created. BY the words of Professor Ron Ekers the telescope of CSIRO is one of the few telescopes in the world which could carry out such difficult work and find a material from which the first stars and the first galaxies in the Universe were created. It appeared that cold molecular hydrogen (H2) was the key material of forming the first stars and galaxies. It was found in early stars and galaxies with help of CO intermediary gas which radiates radio waves. To make the discovery, scientists studied the remote protogalaxies and other protoobjects of the Universe.
The large Andromeda galaxy opens many secrets thanks to Chandra space telescope. With help of supersensitive scientific tools of a Chandra space telescope scientists managed to find a large number of candidates for the black holes in a large Andromeda galaxy. The Andromeda galaxy is the neighbor of our Galaxy. Discovery was made with help of 150 supervisions over Andromeda’s galaxy by means of Chandra space telescopes. Supervision was made within 13 years. During this time scientists found 26 candidates for black holes. Today it is a record by quantity of the black holes located in another, than our Galaxy. Some astronomers consider a galaxy Andromeda as the sister of our own galaxy and are sure that through some billions years both of these galaxies will surely face.
The space telescope Swift helped to make the unique Milky Way galaxy map.
The orbital telescope Swift, which was started in 2004 for the purpose of studying of space gamma splashes, helped scientists to create the galaxy map.
Over creation of the card worked the astronomers from the American Space Agency NASA and the State Pennsylvanian University. With help of scientific tools of orbital observatory, scientists created the detailed galaxy map of an environment of our Milky Way galaxy.