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Japanese scientists Sang-Woo Kim from Osaka University, Jun Nishimura from the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Asato Tsuchiya from Shizuoka University have created the Big Bang simulator explaining how the universe was born after the Big Bang. In the new simulator, the Big Bang is created as a “symmetry-breaking event” — a fluctuation that caused three spatial dimensions to break free from the other six dimensions of string theory, then rapidly unfurl to produce our universe’s observed 3D structure.The new Big Bang simulator is created based on the string theory – the theory that models elementary particles as oscillating lines (“strings”) rather than dimensionless points.
According to the string theory, there are ten dimensions in the universe: nine of space and one of time. Our universe can only support three spatial dimensions, since the other six are curled up in undetectably tiny bundles called Calabi-Yau manifolds. Of course, there’s no proof to this theory. However, according to Japanese scientists, the string theory is the one that perfectly fits to the universe’s origin and its apparent 3D structure and they have used it to build the new Big Bang simulator. In the matrix model formulation for superstring theory, matrices are supposed to be the fundamental degrees of freedom, and the string picture emerges when one takes the limit of infinitely large matrix size (32×32). They have generated hundreds or thousands of matrices and then taken an average over the matrices to get the physical information as to how the universe evolves in time. The calculation of 32×32 large matrices took about two months to complete on a supercomputer and gave us a possibility to see the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang until the onset of inflation. The result of the experiment was that the nine-dimensional model universe spontaneously ballooned in three directions, while the other six spatial dimensions remained tightly wrapped. From the mathematical perspective, this symmetry-breaking event happened because of changing rows and columns of variables in the matrices; mathematical operations on the matrices produced the coordinates of space, and with each time step, the coordinates increased in 3 directions (while remaining unchanged in the other 6 dimensions). The changing matrices were what interpreted as a universe birth.