The Curiosity rover, which is designed to explore Mars, has found an ancient oasis on Mars. Researchers working with the Curiosity rover have found salt-enriched…
Cosmic rays are charged subatomic particles that streak to Earth from deep in outer space.
A few rare cosmic rays are extraordinarily powerful, with energies up to 100 million times greater than any attained by human-made particle colliders, such as CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. The sources of these cosmic rays are a mystery. According to study co-author Francis Halzen at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, principal investigator at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a massive telescope designed to find the tiny subatomic particles nature is capable of accelerating elementary particles to macroscopic energies. There are basically only two ideas on how she does this, in gravitationally driven particle flows near the supermassive black holes at the centers of active galaxies, and in the collapse of stars to a black hole, seen by astronomers as gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe. They can emit as much energy as our sun during its entire 10-billion-year lifetime in anywhere from milliseconds to minutes. Some gamma-ray bursts are thought to be collapses of supermassive stars, hypernovas, while others are thought to be collisions of black holes with other black holes or neutron stars, both types produce brief but intense blasts of radiation, said study co-author Spencer Klein of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. New evidence may now rule out gamma-ray bursts as sources of these ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.