Continuing our top 10 ranges, today we will write about top 10 largest cities in the world by land area.
Olympus Mons is the tallest planetary mountain or a very large shield volcano on the planet Mars. By one measure, it has a height of nearly 25 km (13.6 mi or 72,000 ft). Olympus is about two and a half times as tall as Mount Everest’s height above sea level. So it is considered as the second tallest mountain and the tallest planetary mountain in the Solar System.
Mountain is the youngest of the large volcanoes on Mars, having formed during Mars’s Hesperian Period. It is yet the largest volcano discovered in the Solar System and had been known to astronomers since the late 19th century as the albedo feature Nix Olympica (Latin for “Olympic Snow”). Its mountainous nature was suspected well before space probes confirmed its identity as a mountain.
The typical atmospheric pressure at the top of Olympus Mons is 72 pascals, about 12% of the average Martian surface pressure of 600 pascals.
Where is located the tallest planetary mountain?
The volcano is located in Mars’s western hemisphere at approximately 18.65°N 226.2°E, just off the northwestern edge of the Tharsis bulge. The western portion of the volcano lies in the Amazonis quadrangle (MC-8) and the central and eastern portions in the adjoining Tharsis quadrangle.
The name of the Olympus Mons
Olympus Mons and a few other volcanoes in the Tharsis region stand high enough to reach above the frequent Martian dust-storms recorded by telescopic observers as early as the 19th century. The astronomer Patrick Moore pointed out that Schiaparelli (1835–1910) “had found that his Nodus Gordis and Olympic Snow were almost the only features to be seen” during dust storms, and “guessed correctly that they must be high”.
Observations of the planet from Mariner 9 confirmed that Nix Olympica was not just a mountain, but a volcano. Ultimately, astronomers adopted the name Olympus Mons for the albedo feature known as Nix Olympica.
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