For the 50th anniversary NASA has released some beautiful Panoramas pictures of Apollo missions.
For the first time astronomers found a large amount of the pine forest, which salts could play a key role in emergence of RNA, which is the connection crucial for emergence of life in a meteorite from Mars. James Stephenson from Institute of astrobiology of NASA at the Hawaiian university in Manoa (USA) and his colleagues investigated the meteorite from Mars found in Antarctica during expedition of 2009-2010. Using an ionic microprobe, scientists analyzed clay streaks in a meteorite from Mars and found out that pine forest in it contains in quantity of 160 parts on one million. That is in eight times more, than in other known meteorites from Mars. Salts of pine forest could play an important role in life origin on Earth as they stabilize a ribose, the RNA important component which was “data carrier” before emergence of life. Molecules of RNA stored and transferred hereditary information between the first live organisms even before emergence of DNA. But thus RNA had to appear during chemical evolution in the lifeless nature. The most difficult stage of this process is considered education and ribose stabilization. As showed the previous experiments with substances, which could exist on early Earth, the ribose isn’t capable to arise in primary “broth” without pine forest salts. Now on Earth of salt of pine forest are widespread in clays and deposits rich with organic chemistry (about 80-800 ppm). But there didn’t remain the evidence of their existence on a planet at an early stage of its existence. Scientists believe that 3,6-3,8 billion years ago Earth and Mars reminded each other more, than now. And the abundance of salts of pine forest on early Mars testifies to that, as on Earth there was a clay rich with pine forest which could be a source of this element necessary for emergence of life.
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