Hot exoplanets atmosphere structure

New studies about exoplanets atmosphere structure

The first results of the analysis of eight hot planets showed that the structure of the atmospheres of these exoplanets is more difficult, than was considered earlier. Catharine Hitson from University of Exeter, England, delivered the report on carrying out this research on the National astronomical assembly which was taking place in Saint Andrews, Scotland, on July 5. Hot planets represent huge exoplanets the size approximately about Jupiter. The exoplanets address in such short distance to the stars that the atmospheres of these planets are warmed to 1000-3000 degrees Celsius. Astronomers can find what gases are present at the atmospheres of hot planets, analyzing a range of the star light which has passed through the atmosphere of a planet when a planet is directly before a disk of the star.

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Atmosphere of Venus

Super wind on atmosphere of Venus

For many years scientists know about strong wind on Venus. However thanks to the spacecraft “Venus-Express”, it became known that increased intensity and force of the winds on Venus. They turned into the real hurricanes which many times over surpass force of terrestrial hurricanes. At this stage scientists who are engaged in studying of winds on atmosphere of Venus, can’t explain the mechanism of action and emergence of similar winds. Very difficult, but it is important to understand that provokes so strong wind on Venus. Their speed sometimes reaches 300 km/h. And in recent years even 400 km/h. By the words of Russian scientist Igor Khatuntsev, earlier they never observed similar speeds of hurricanes on Venus.

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Water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars

Water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars

In the atmosphere of Mars there is more water vapor than in Earth atmosphere. Scientists from the American Space Agency NASA and Laboratory of Jet Movement were extremely surprised to that the Martian Prospecting Device MRO found a large amount of water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars. It is so strange to realize that in the atmosphere of the dry and waterless world there is a water vapor. The water is in bigger quantity, than in the top layers of the terrestrial atmosphere. For a long time scientists couldn’t understand from where water vapor on Mars. It appeared that the secret is covered in water and ice clouds of Mars. Similar clouds were found by the main scientific Mars Climate Sounder tool, established onboard the Martian Prospecting Device.

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Saturn Storm

Rain in atmosphere of Saturn

The group of astronomers from LeicesterUniversity (Britain) collected the proofs on which the rings of Saturn daily lose huge volumes of substance, which drops out in a planet ionosphere. It is known, that rings of a planet consist both of submillimetric particles of ice, and of huge blocks with size in kilometers. If large fragments of ice move in rings on Keplerian orbits, movement of small particles if they receive rather big electric charge a bit different. Like particles of a solar wind in near-earth space, these micro particles of ice are capable to leave the plane of rings and, being cast over power lines of a magnetic field, to travel to Saturn. If this is so, scientists argued, a certain stream of weight has to drop out constantly at different widths of the atmosphere of Saturn. To see a stream of the frozen water they didn’t hope, but it was succeeded to notice characteristic signs of this process. Scientists noted, that this sleet drops out in a planet ionosphere generally at the widths from 25 to 60 degrees, and as a whole such loaded precipitation covers from 30 to 43% of a atrmosphere of Saturn. For this moment it is unclear, whether water reaches the planet atmosphere in the form of ions or in the form of the submillimetric loaded particles of ice. The main result is not in an assessment of evolution or time of life of rings, and that we see in the atmosphere of Saturn.

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The Hot Spots in Atmosphere of Jupiter

The Hot Spots in Atmosphere of Jupiter

Using the images from Cassini spacecraft, the scientists found that the hot spots of Jupiter’s atmosphere are created by a wave named Rossby. The hot spots are cloudless patches of Jupiter’s atmosphere. This is the first time that the scientists observed the hot spots, and this is the best way to appreciate the nature of features of hot spots. Also the scientists made movies from the observations taken by Cassini, during its last flyby Jupiter. The films zoom in (approximately 7 degrees) the hot spots between the dark parts and bright white parts of Jupiter.
About the hot spots the scientists much knew from Galileo spacecraft, which descended into a hot spot in 1995.

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Exoplanet HR8799c

HR8799c Exoplanet Atmosphere contains Water Vapor

In the atmosphere of an alien planet HR8799c, which distance from the Earth is approximately 130 light years, the astronomers found vapor of water and carbon monoxide. The astronomers say that in the HR8799c planet, there is no methane, which is a gas that indicates life. The astronomical measurements, which the astronomers did during their observations, are the most precise measurements, which the astronomers have ever made outside of our solar system. Astronomers have founded over 1000 planets beyond our solar system since 1990. Among them the HR8799c is the huge planet. The mass of HR8799c, is approximately seven times more that the mass of Jupiter, which is the largest planet in our solar system. It circles a star with three other planets.

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Asteroid 2013 EC

The Asteroid 2013 EC will fly near the Earth on March 4

The asteroid 2013 EC with dimensions from 15 up to 17 meters was founded in Pan-STARRS 1 observatory in Hawaiian Islands on March 1. The center of minor planets appropriated to a new asteroid designation 2013 EC. The asteroid, similar to asteroid fallen in the district of Chelyabinsk, will fly near the Earth on March 4, 2013 at 07:35 UTC. The distance between the Earth and the asteroid will be 362 thousand kilometers, this slightly less than a distance from Earth to the Moon.

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Chinese Gigantic Lightning

Chinese Science Bulletin magazine published an article regarding the observation of lightning over the China. This huge lightning appeared in the upper atmosphere in Chinese district Shandong in 2010. The scientists installed the camera with infrared channel, which direction in real time was corrected by the WWLLN (International system of monitoring of electric activity). The scientists succeeded to record the lightning by using this camera. According to researchers, the upper bound of the lightning reached 89 kilometers over the earth, and bottom was at the level of 52 kilometers. Scientists estimated its energy at some million mega joules.

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View of Saturn From Cassini Spacecraft

View of Saturn From Cassini Spacecraft

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has delivered view of Saturn, taken while the spacecraft was in Saturn’s shadow. The cameras were turned toward Saturn and the sun so that the planet and rings are backlit. This special, very-high-phase viewing geometry lets scientists study ring and atmosphere phenomena not easily seen at a lower phase. Since images like this can only be taken while the sun is behind the planet, this beautiful view is all the more precious for its rarity. The last time Cassini captured a view like this was in Sept. 2006, when it captured a mosaic processed to look like natural color.

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