The biggest black holes are growing faster than the rate of stars being formed in their galaxies, in accordance with two new studies using data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes. More than many years, astronomers have collected data on the arrangement of stars in galaxies and the growth of the biggest black holes (that is, those with millions or billions the mass of the Sun) in their centers.
Scientists from Peking University in China and from the University of Arizona announced their findings the brightest quasar in the early universe, powered by the most massive black hole yet known at that time. The discovery of this quasar, named SDSS J0100+2802, marks an important step in understanding how quasars have evolved from the earliest epoch 900 million years after the Big Bang, thought to have happened 13.7 billion years ago. The quasar, with its central black hole mass of 12 billion solar masses and the luminosity of 420 trillion suns, is at a distance of 12.8 billion light-years from Earth.
Black holes are celestial objects which are so dense, that not even light can escape they intense gravitational pull. Their gravity is not sufficient to overpower the atomic and nuclear forces of their interiors, which resist compression. But in more massive objects, gravity ultimately wins. This phenomenon occurs when a dying stars runs out of fuel and collapses under the weight of their own gravity. According to scientists, there might be three types of black holes : stellar, supermassive, and miniature black holes – depending on their mass. Astronomers can measure the mass of black holes by studying the material that orbits around them.
The large Andromeda galaxy opens many secrets thanks to Chandra space telescope. With help of supersensitive scientific tools of a Chandra space telescope scientists managed to find a large number of candidates for the black holes in a large Andromeda galaxy. The Andromeda galaxy is the neighbor of our Galaxy. Discovery was made with help of 150 supervisions over Andromeda’s galaxy by means of Chandra space telescopes. Supervision was made within 13 years. During this time scientists found 26 candidates for black holes. Today it is a record by quantity of the black holes located in another, than our Galaxy. Some astronomers consider a galaxy Andromeda as the sister of our own galaxy and are sure that through some billions years both of these galaxies will surely face.
The black hole in one of galaxies in constellation of the Sculptor which earlier actively absorbed interstellar gas, stopped now activity and fell into a sleep. This sleep is lasting about ten years. The information obtained by astronomers with help of a NuSTAR telescope from Chandra xray Observatory. The “fallen asleep” black hole weighing about 5 million masses of the Sun is in the center of an active galaxy of NGC 253. In this star system located in 8 million light years from Earth, processes of formation of new stars go with very high speed. The last observations from Chandra xray observatory showed that the black hole actively absorbs gas. According to the astronomers the results testify that the black hole fell asleep over the last ten years. Periodic supervision with help of Chandra xray observatory and NuSTAR the scientists will be able to tell, whether it woke up again. Scientists note that black holes in the centers of galaxies stop absorbing a matter and fall into hibernation only when in their vicinities are settled “food” stocks.
3500-kilogram infrared space telescope Herschel launched in 1990 on height of 1,5 million kilometers over Earth, made interesting discovery. During long supervision over our galaxy, the European astronomical observatory recorded hot molecular gas, which falls into a supermassive central black hole. Our local black hole is located in the region known under the name Sagittarius of A *. This compact radiation source is at distance about 26 000 light years from our Solar System. The mass of the central object makes 4,3 million mass of the Sun. The huge number of a dust lays in the plane of our galaxy between its edges and the center, complicating us and our orbital telescopes the most part of visibility in the visible wave range.
Astronomers watched how the black hole woke up from long hibernation, and started absorbing remains of the giant planet. Opening in a galaxy of NGC 4845 located in constellation of the Maiden at distance about 47 million light years, was made by the international observatory of gamma beams of Integral, with XMM-Newton and Swift telescopes, which are located onboard the International space station. Making observations over various galaxies by Integral, the astronomers paid attention to a bright luminescence of NGC 4845 in the x-ray range. Then, using XMM-Newton telescope, was confirmed the nature of this luminescence. Earlier it wasn’t observed similar phenomenon. The scientists notes that the opening was absolutely unexpected opening, regarding the galaxy, which had been quiet during last 20-30 years. According to the estimates, the object absorbs a giant planet, because the mass of object can be more than the mass of Jupiter approximately 14-30 times. Though the astronomers note that the real weight can be below, it can correspond to the mass of Earth. The flaring event in NGC 4845 may be seen as warm-up act, which expected in the supermassive black hole at the Milky Way Galaxy center.
Along with the object, which being eaten by the black hole, these events will help the astronomers to know more about the happenings of different types objects, because they encounter black holes of varying sizes.
Astronomers from Observatory “Gemini” received the most detailed to date image of the unusual galaxy NGC 660, relating to a rare class of polar galaxies. The galaxy NGC 660 is located at a distance of 40 million light years from Earth near the constellation Pisces. It is as if two separate star clusters: the spiral and lenticular. Such galaxies are called polar – they rotate the outer ring over the poles of the internal cluster. In addition, NGC 660 is the only other known polar galaxies in which the center has an old lenticular congestion. All polar galaxies are a result of the interaction of two separate star clusters. Some of them can be formed by the collision of two galaxies formed (for example, a galaxy can be formed by a merger in the future, with the Milky Way Andromeda).
NASA’s NuSTAR mission (a mission to search for black holes in the universe.) is scheduled to launch from Kwajalein Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean on June 13, no earlier than 8:30 a.m. PDT (11:30 a.m. EDT). The observatory, which will hunt for black holes and other exotic objects using specialized X-ray eyes, will be launched from a Pegasus XL rocket carried by an Orbital Science Corporation L-1011 “Stargazer” plane. The plane will take off from Kwajalein Atoll an hour before launch, flying out over the Pacific Ocean.