Spitzer space telescope transferred pictures of a C/2012 S1 comet of ISON. It becomes the brightest object in the night sky of Earth after the Moon in November, 2013 when it will dive into the Sun to Earth and will take place in dangerous proximity from the star photosphere. The comet of C/2012 S1 comet was open in September, 2012 by the Russian astronomers. The comet in November, 2013 will pass at distance in 1,2 million kilometers from the Sun. At this time brightness of a comet can reach brightness of the full Moon, and it, probably, becomes the brightest in a decade. In December the comet will pass at the minimum distance from Earth, which is about 0,4 radiuses of a terrestrial orbit. Currently the comet is at distance in 3,3 astronomical from the Sun, between orbits of Jupiter and Mars. While it remains invisible to a naked eye, however land and orbital telescopes watch long ago it in the optical and infrared range.
In December 2011 the comet Lovejoy (C/2011 W3), endured extremely close rapprochement with the Sun. The comet helped scientists to probe structures of a magnetic field in the closest vicinities of a star where no spacecrafts can get. Comet Lovejoy C/2011 W3 was found by the Australian astronomer Terry Lovejoy on November 27, 2011. Calculations showed that on the night of December 16 the comet will fly by at the minimum distance from the Sun — only in 140 thousand kilometers from a star surface. It is more than 100 times shorter than a distance between the Sun and Mercury, and is twice less, than distance from the Moon to Earth. Scientists were sure, that the comet completely will evaporate even before perihelion passing. However the comet safely rounded the Sun and left on the other hand that became sensation for astronomers.
By the word of scientists, the coming nearer comet, which can quite appear “A comet of a century”, can create an unusual type of a meteor shower. When the comet of ISON 2013 will fly by Earth this year, it is quite possible that the dust from a tail of a comet will create a meteoric stream. In that moment to the atmosphere of a planet will get a stream of the smallest particles, which once were part of a tail of a comet. According to the Paul Veygert instead of combustion in light flash, they will softly drift down to the Earth. By the Veygert’s computer model motes will travel with a speed of 125 000 miles/h (201 168 km/h) but as soon as they will get to Earth atmosphere, will be slowed down before total loss of speed. Because of it, observers on the Earth won’t be able to see meteors as they fall through the atmosphere in January 2014, the scientist added. The invisible meteor shower of a comet dust, if it really occurs, will be very slow. It can take months or even years for the fine dust settling from an upper atmosphere. But the hope of brilliant show can’t be lost.
French astrophysics established that a source practically all water in a stratosphere of Jupiter is the comet Shoemaker – Levy 9, fallen to a planet in 1994. Conclusions of researchers are based on supervision over a stratosphere of the gas giant, carried out by means of a space telescope Herschel. Data were obtained in the infrared range, with lengths of waves of 66.4 and 179.5 micrometers, where water has characteristic peaks of radiation. In work were used the spectrometers of PACS and HIFI established on a telescope. Made on the basis of data Herschel the card of distribution of water in a stratosphere of Jupiter was not uniform: in the southern hemisphere its concentration was much higher, than in the northern. According to astrophysicists, such heterogeneity unambiguously says, that its source is the comet Shoemaker- Levy 9, which in 1994 entered just into the southern hemisphere. Scientists specify that the water rising within of a planet would be distributed evenly. To other, more uniform distribution lead also other alternative scenarios, for example, water drift from the outside together with a space dust.
Planetologists hope, that Mars won’t suffer in October, 2014 during comet flight by it. In spite of the fact that Mars is far from Earth, is also as well as our planet periodically is under the threat of rapprochement with comets and asteroids. So, by estimates of scientists, in October 2014 the comet of C/2013 A1 will approach with the Red Planet. This comet was found for the first time on January 3, 2013 by the Australian astronomer Robert Maknotom in observatory the Siding Spring with the help 0.5м Schmidt’s mirror and lens telescope. A comet Maknota and her trajectory of flight watched about two months in the course of what it was calculated that there is a small probability of collision of a comet with Mars on October 19, 2014. When passing by a comet of an orbit of Mars its relative speed will make 56 km/s. Diameter of a shock crater in case of collision will be approximately ten times more than a comet kernel. Diameter of a kernel is estimated in the range from 8 to 50 kilometers. By estimates of some astronomers, it is supposed, that the comet Maknota can pass at distance of 41300 kilometers from the central point of Mars. In April, 2013 of NASA published new data according to which collision of a comet of C/2013 A1 with Mars is improbable.
The astronomers from the University of Maryland and Lowell Observatory from the Arizona, are observing the comet C/2012 S1, which may be the brightest comet. For the observation the astronomers are relying on NASA’s Swift satellite to track the comet. The comet will pass near the Sun later this year. By the words of astronomers the approaching will be a dazzling display. The comet C/2012 S1 is supposed to be one of the brightest ever recorder. The astronomers examine the images from Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope, for the making the comet’s initial estimates of the water and dust production. The comet C/2012 S1 can be the brightest comet among all the comets, which the astronomers have noticed during last 50 years in the solar system. The comet gives the chance to astronomers to observe the changes of comet in details and over an extended period. Currently the comet is approaching to the solar system. In the inner solar system the comet will encounter with Mars.
At the end of March we will say goodbye to a comet C/2011 L4 forever. On March 10 the comet C2011 L4 approaches to the Sun as much as possible. The astronomers from astronomical observatory McDonald, the comet C/2011 L4 Panstarrs has vary long elliptic orbit. For the full passing with the orbit the comet needs approximately 100 million years. After March the comet C/2011 L4 Panstarrs will leave vicinities of the Earth and the Sun. On March 10, the comet C/2011 L4 Panstarrs will fly maximally close to the Sun. The distance between the comet and the Sun will be 45 milion kilometers. As the comet is very bright, it is possible to watch it with the naked eye. On the March 5 the comet approached to our planet, and the distance between the comet and the Earth was 162 million kilometers.
By the hit of comet C/2013 A1 with the Mars, which can happen at October 2014, the climate of the Mars can be changed and become closer to the climate of the Earth. C/2013 A1 comet, was discovered in the beginning of this year by the astronomer Robert McNaught. According to conclusions of astronomers, if the collision happens, the present status and the climate of the Mars will change. According to estimations of astronomers, collision at a speed of 56 kilometers per second will lift huge of a dust in the atmosphere, and as a result of explosion huge volumes of ice and the frozen carbonic acid will instantly thaw and evaporate. It can lead to a global warming on the Mars. On the other hand, the dust in the atmosphere will detain the sunlight and ca provoke a cold snap, as it happened during the global dusty storms on Mars in the 1970th years.
C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) comet, was discovered in the beginning of this year by ace comet-hunter Robert McNaught in New South Wales. The astronomers almost 74 days are observing this comet and according the observations, the comet C/2013 A1 will buzz Mars on October 2014. Astronomers says that the distance between the comet C/2013 A1 and Mars will be approximately 0.008 AU (650,000 miles) and this distance will be safe for Mars. As the comet was discovered not so long ago, it is difficult for astronomers to forecast the right location of comet after 20 months. All these forecasts are based in the current observations, and in case of new information, of course, these forecasts will be changed.