Crater Tadpoles on Mars

NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) demonstrates an impact crater tadpole because of the valley that was carved by water that used to fill it. It is often difficult to differentiate between inlet and outlet channels, but water always flows downhill. In this particular occasion, scientist can deduce that water is flowing outward because they have the necessary terrain-height information.

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Lunar craters

In lunar craters remained splinters of ancient asteroid

Found new research, that twenty five percent of lunar craters can store the remains of asteroids, which created them. The surprising result allows to assume that it is necessary to scientists a little more difficult, than they expected to find out, from what the Moon consists. By the words of coauthor of research Jay Melosh from University of Pardyyu future researches of structure of the lunar soil should work to prove that breeds on a surface really lunar, instead of arose owing to falling of the asteroids, especially unusual or exotic minerals. Melosh and his colleagues used computer models for imitation of formation of lunar craters from collision with asteroids. They defined that one quarter of craters on the Moon were left the asteroids flying with a speed of 26 800 miles/h (43 130 km/h) or less – improbably quickly, but not quickly enough that the asteroid was destroyed. Other calculations executed by team, show that at such speeds the asteroid doesn’t evaporate, and many its parts remain in the formed crater. If diameter of a crater not less than 20 kilometers, the remains of an asteroid tend to collect in the central dive of a crater, gradually collapsing under the influence of gravitation of the Moon.

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Arima twins craters on Mars surface

Mars craters the reason of underground explosions

The underground explosions are the reason for craters on Mars The underground explosions, which are involving ice, are responsible for two craters on Mars. The Mars twin craters are in the Thaumasia Planum, which is near to the largest canyon in the Solar System. The name of northern crater is Arima, but the southern crater has no name. The two craters have 50 km wide and show intricate interior features. The central pit craters are common on Mars, such as on the icy moons orbiting the planets in the Solar System. In this article I’ll explain the process, how the craters formed.

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Crater Chicxulub – the reason of disappearance of the dinosaurs

There are some theories regarding the disappearance of the dinosaurs, and one of these theories surrounds the 110 mile-wide crater Chicxulub in Mexico. The scientists think that the asteroid was the culprit for dinosaurs’ disappearance, which had crashed into Earth. But the group of scientists from USA is offering a new theory, which proves that the culprit was not a crater Chicxulub, but a speeding comet. The American scientist suggests the evidences from the crater, which are proving the impact beyond the asteroid. According to results of iridium and osmium analyzing, the scientists’ group decided that the collision left less debris, that the scientists had calculated later. This fact allows to believe that the impact occurred by a relative smaller object than previously thought. As the scientists assume, the comets originate outside the solar system. The comets follow the elliptical orbits, which pass the Sun. If the impact at Chicxulub was caused by the comet, it would set a shockwave, which would trigger huge tsunamis and volcanic eruption. Also, the impact would send a cloud of heated dust in the atmosphere, which would block the Sun. These events, perhaps, were the end of the dinosaurs rule on the Earth.

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Volcanic Lightning

Lightning Volcanic Eruption

Some time ago there was an eruption of a Japanese Sakurajima volcano, which threw out melted lava with huge force. This process was accompanied with volcanic lightning. It looks unusually: clouds of a black smoke and lightning escaping from them. The photographer of Martin Rietze could capture this volcanic lightning eruption. There is no consensus among the scientists regarding the formation of volcanic lightning during the eruption. The question connected with the formation of usual lightning, is still in a stage of studying. But the reasons of emergence of volcanic lightning is even less clear. According to the hypotheses, thrown-out bubbles of magma or a volcanic ash carries an electric charge. But volcanic lightning can be formed by collisions as a result directing a charge in a volcanic dust. The scientists found two versions of volcanic lightning.

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