Our home planet Earth is a rocky, terrestrial planet. It has a solid and active surface with mountains, valleys, canyons, plains and so much more. Earth is special because it is an ocean planet. Water covers 70% of Earth’s surface.…
The space agency NASA published photos of Earth and Moon shot by device Cassini at distance 1,5 billion kilometers from a surface of Saturn and Mercury. Thanks to a successful foreshortening it was succeeded to receive rare pictures of high resolution. The part of pictures was received with help of the camera placed on the device Cassini which is in rings of Saturn. Another part of pictures was received with help of the equipment of autonomous station Messenger from Mercury orbit in 98 million kilometers from our planet.
All gold on Earth could result from space accident between super dense dead stars. Gold on Earth it is shrouded in mystery as it can’t be formed in stars as easier elements, such as carbon and iron. But the secret can be opened now. As approves new research, collision of the dead stars could become the catalyst of creation of valuable metal. By the words of leading author of research Edo Berger they consider that the amount of the gold which made and has been thrown out during merge of two neutron stars, can be comparable weighing 10 Moon – quite decently. Berger and his colleagues studied short gamma splash which was noticed on Earth orbit by the spacecraft of NASA of Swift at the beginning of June.
From east coast of Virginia on July 4 were launched two small NASA rockets, directed on an orbit for research of electric whirlwinds in Earth upper atmosphere. Two small NASA rockets started within 15 seconds from the NASA spaceport on the State of Virginia. The mission is to investigate global electric whirlwinds in Earth ionosphere with help of the devices installed on Black Brant V and Terrier-Improved Orion rockets probes. By the words of representatives of NASA they prepared Black Brant V and Terrier-Improved Orion start for show of fireworks in honor of the Independence Day. Start of NASA rockets On the Fourth of July were part of mission of Daytime Dynamo, the joint project with Japanese agency of space researches to study movement of electric whirlwinds in Earth ionosphere at distance between 30 and 600 miles (48 and 965 kilometers) over a surface.
On Earth began the magnetic storm. The index of geomagnetic indignations of Kp in the morning on Saturday reached value 5. 5 is a minimum level which is considered the magnetic storm, and then the index rose to 6. The reason of geomagnetic indignations can be the stream of a high-speed solar wind. The stream is the loaded particles which source is the coronal hole on the Sun (rather dark area on a solar disk with open lines of a magnetic field). This hole was noticed in pictures from the “Stereo” probe on the invisible part of the Sun 10 days ago. Then scientists predicted that on June 28-29 when it comes to our part, the magnetic storm of moderate force can begin.
Finding of sources of ancient water will help scientists to answer fundamental questions of emergence of life on Earth. The international team of scientists from Great Britain and Canada opened ancient deposits of the water, which age is estimated approximately at 1,5-2 billion years. This water was completely isolated from waters of the World Ocean and covered deeply underground. Interestingly that this water contains many all set of the chemical elements necessary for emergence of life. Scientists assume that the water found by them can be the most ancient on the earth and contain traces of any forms of life. Detailed research of this water will help scientists to learn how microbe life can arise and exist in isolation. Researchers from Manchester, Lancaster, Toronto and Makmaster found the most ancient water on a planet in mines in Ontario (Canada) at a depth of 2,4 kilometers by means of the most advanced equipment provided by University of Manchester.
Scientists consider that asteroids were a source of water on the Moon and in Earth . Astronomers analyzed isotope structure of samples of a deep cloak of the Moon, delivered by mission “Appolo” to the Earth, and came to a conclusion that water molecules in them and in a matter of Earth come from the same source, which most likely were asteroids. It is considered, that the Moon was formed as a result of collision of a protoplanetary body, with Earth “germ”. Collision led to emission of a matter of hot cloud of debris and proto-Earth in space, from which was created the Moon. This cataclysm was considered as the reason of why its subsoil and a surface are almost deprived of water. This hypothesis was called into question in February 2012, when scientists found unexpectedly high concentration of water in lunar magmatic breeds. Astronomers under the leadership of Erik Hauri from Carnegie’s Institute in Washington (USA) found one more argument against the classical theory of formation of the Moon, having analyzed isotope structure of breeds of its cloak.
The core of Earth was warmed up to the temperature of 6 thousand degrees Celsius, it is one thousand degrees more than the previous estimates; it allows to explain existence of a magnetic field at our planet that was difficult earlier. The lithosphere of Earth consists of three layers — crust, a cloak and a core. Studying of a core and cloak layers directly is impossible in practice because of deep water on which their breeds lie. Therefore scientists investigate properties of a subsoil of Earth, watching laboratory experiments with an ultrahigh pressure and temperature. The scientists from the Commissariat of nuclear power of France in Grenoble could calculate temperature of firm part of a core of Earth, having tracked how iron behaves with an ultrahigh pressure. For this purpose scientists developed an original technique, which allows illuminating an alloy in the camera of a high pressure with help of x-ray radiation. As scientists explain, their technique allows learning an aggregate state of an alloy, whether there was it liquid or remains a firm body. Similar data are necessary for studying of behavior of a matter of a core as temperature of melting and other properties of iron cardinally change with an ultrahigh pressure. The scientists used the technique for measurement of properties of a slice of iron, which was squeezed on 2,2 million atmospheres in a diamond anvil and is heated to 4,5 thousand degrees Celsius by means of a laser beam. Scientists used these data for temperature calculation in firm part of a core pressure in which reaches 3,3 million atmospheres. To their surprise, temperature in it reached 6-6,5 thousand degrees, that is one thousand more than the previous estimates.
Traditionally this day the actions are directed on ecological education and environment protection held. The Google logo is replaced on Monday with the interactive image of wildlife in development — mountains, the lake with small fishes, trees, animals, flowers. By pressing Play button on the virtual sun, it will begin the daily cycle. After end of one cycle the season — winter, spring, summer or fall changes. The user also can operate elements of doodle — to blow off dandelions, to cause a virtual rain or animals from a hole. The tradition to celebrate the Earth Day created in the USA at the initiative of the ecological activist of the Gay lord of Nelson, and for the first time the Earth Day was celebrated on April 22, 1970. 20 years later this day became the international action in which 200 million people from 141 countries of the world participated. In 2009 the General Assembly of the UN at the initiative of Bolivia proclaimed on April 22 in the International afternoon of Mother Earth.