Scientists received the evident certificate that growth of galaxy is limited at the expense of new stars. Supervision showed that new stars throw out gas streams which could go on a further increment of their quantity out of galaxy limits. The group of researchers of Germany, Canada and the USA used ALMA radio telescope for supervision. This tool is sensitive to a radio emission of submillimetric range. Studying the central part of a galaxy of NGC 253 scientists found some gas streams proceeding out of its limits. Thus the principle of supervision based on registration of radio waves, allowed to see only streams of the gas consisting of a monoxide of carbon that is carbon monoxide. The chemical composition of gas specifies that streams of substance are formed not at the expense of hot plasma of stars (it consists generally of hydrogen), and at the expense of the cold interstellar gas picked up by a star wind.
Astrophysics from the Southern European observatory (ESO) photographed a galaxy’s absorption of gas clouds surrounding it. The new data obtained with help of Very Large telescope (VLT) are remarkable that the galaxy is removed from Earth on distance more than ten billion light years. And respectively it is visible in that look in which was during an era of the young Universe. As at such distance the galaxy appears the smallest even at supervision through Very Large telescope (VLT), astronomers had to use indirect methods for an assessment of volume of absorption of gas and definition of details of process.
Scientists learned of what were constructed the first stars and galaxies of the Universe. Thanks to a radio telescope of CSIRO which is located in the Australian Observatory Parkes, astronomers could find the main construction material from which the first stars and galaxies of our Universe were created. BY the words of Professor Ron Ekers the telescope of CSIRO is one of the few telescopes in the world which could carry out such difficult work and find a material from which the first stars and the first galaxies in the Universe were created. It appeared that cold molecular hydrogen (H2) was the key material of forming the first stars and galaxies. It was found in early stars and galaxies with help of CO intermediary gas which radiates radio waves. To make the discovery, scientists studied the remote protogalaxies and other protoobjects of the Universe.
The international team of researchers created the video map of the movement of galaxies neighbor the Universe in more detail, than before. Video map is provides dynamic three-dimensional idea of the Universe with help of turn, scrolling and scaling. The space project Streams planned visible and dark matter density round our galaxy Milky Way at distance of 300 million light years. Our galaxy Milky Way lies in a congestion of 100000 galaxies. The movement of tectonic plates shows properties of an interior of Earth. And the movement of galaxies shows information on the main components of the Universe, which is dark energy and dark matter. Dark energy is the mysterious force, which causes expansion of the Universe.
In intergalactic space astronomers found huge threadlike clouds of gas from the ionized hydrogen, which can be the indicator of thin threads from the dark matter connecting cells of global space. The previous cycles of supervision over empty space between galaxies indicated of possibility existence of clouds of hydrogen between them. But the astronomers couldn’t determine the sizes of these hydrogen gas clouds and their property. With help of a radio telescope Green-Bank the astronomers were succeeded to understand that it not shapeless clouds, but quite accurate structures. For several weeks the astronomers watched the closest neighbors of our Milky Way, Andromeda’s galaxies and the Triangle. These “star megalopolises” drew attention of astronomers still a year ago, when they found in data of radio observations hints on existence of big congestions of hydrogen in intergalactic space. According to astrophysicists, all these clouds are located along the line connecting Andromeda and the Triangle.
The American astronomers found rather small galaxy of HFLS3, stars in which were formed in two thousand times quicker, than in our Milky Way that allows ranking it as a new class of super-starburst galaxy in the early Universe. According to the astronomers, this galaxy is the certificate of that, that in the very ancient time, through only 800 million years after the Big Bang, there were possible rough episodes of a star formation. The scientists managed to track one of the most important eras in the history of development of the first galaxies of the Universe. The astronomers found HFLS3 starburst galaxy with super speed star formation, studying the data collected by a land radio telescope of VLA and orbital observatory Hershel during supervision over constellation of the Dragon. In these pictures scientists noticed rather bright point, which range was strongly stretched because of huge distance, which light passed from its source to observers on Earth.
Astrophysics learned to estimate quantity of an interstellar dust in galaxies on range of distribution of ultra-violet radiation from the ionized hydrogen. The study was done with information from Hubble telescope. During the research the scientists analyzed structure of 14 galaxies located in relative proximity from Earth. Astrophysics paid the main attention to distribution in radiation of a series of Lyman. This ultra-violet radiation results from hydrogen transition from unexcited condition.
Atom transition from the lowest in the basic leads conditions to photon radiation with a length of wave of 121,6 nanometers. This length of a wave is called an alpha as the hydrogen line. Its important property is that such radiation before leaving limits of a galaxy and to reach the Earth is repeatedly reradiated. As a result, round galaxies in a range of the alpha line it is often possible to observe gala, radiated by interstellar gas.
Astronomers from Observatory “Gemini” received the most detailed to date image of the unusual galaxy NGC 660, relating to a rare class of polar galaxies. The galaxy NGC 660 is located at a distance of 40 million light years from Earth near the constellation Pisces. It is as if two separate star clusters: the spiral and lenticular. Such galaxies are called polar – they rotate the outer ring over the poles of the internal cluster. In addition, NGC 660 is the only other known polar galaxies in which the center has an old lenticular congestion. All polar galaxies are a result of the interaction of two separate star clusters. Some of them can be formed by the collision of two galaxies formed (for example, a galaxy can be formed by a merger in the future, with the Milky Way Andromeda).
NASA believes it’s spotted the dappled light of the first objects in the universe with the best precision yet. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists have observed a lumpy infrared glow that could be coming from wildly massive stars or voracious black holes. The observations help confirm the first objects were numerous in quantity and furiously burned cosmic fuel. As said Alexander Kashlinsky of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center these objects would have been tremendously bright.