The American physicists and engineers managed to develop technology of the three-dimensional press of lithium ion batteries of a food. The size of the received batteries makes about a millimeter, and the main scope of application developers call implanted devices. The electrodes of the new lithium ion battery turn out is thinner than a human hair while process of the press is completely automated and uses already existing models of three-dimensional printers. The main problem for the scientists was the selection of ink, a material used by the printer. Researchers managed to pick up substance which combines high electric conductivity with ability instantly to harden at contact with air and to remain liquid in the three dimensional printer.
The new technology developed by team of scientists from South Korea, gives the chance to increase several times efficiency and capacity lithium-ion batteries. Researchers under the leadership of the professor Hen Tek-Vana from the Seoul national university (SNU) as a basis for the cathode used nanostructure of oxide of iron and manganese oxide. This replacement allowed to increase three times the efficiency of the charge, with held the lithium-ion batteries. In the modern world Li-ion accumulators remains the most widespread device of conservation of energy for requirements of modern electronic devices. They are specially widespread in mobile devices, for example mobile phones, a photo and video cameras and laptops. Also lithium-ion batteries are used in electric cars gathering popularity.
The American engineers developed ion lithium micro batteries, which on power and speeds of charging can be compared to the best super condensers (ionistor) and keep the high capacity of chemical power supplies. Microbatteries have difficult three-dimensional structure. The main anode and the cathode connect like two microscopic combs on a glass substrate. Thus “teeths” of these “combs”, have regular porous structure. The anode is created from a tin and nickel alloy, and the cathode represents manganese salt of lithium. The difficult microstructure allows reactions to surfaces of micro batteries to pass very quickly. At the expense of it the highest capacity and big current is reached in 2000 times more, than at other chemical batteries.
The American physicists created an accumulator prototype on the basis of the sulfur nanoparticles, which possess the bigger capacity and wear resistance in comparison with usual lithium – ion batteries. For a long time the main advantage of lithium-ion batteries were considered the convenience of operation, fast speed of charging and a discharge and rather small weight. On the other hand, they aren’t deprived serious shortcomings — such batteries quickly lose the capacity, are extremely sensitive to temperature and can blow up at an overheat. The physicists paid attention to the sulfur nanoparticles as a power supplier for a long time. The group of physicists under the direction of And Tsui from Stanford University liquidated one of these problems — fast decrease in capacity at frequent charges of the battery, having learned to use sulfur nanoparticles as a basis for the cathode, a positive pole of the accumulator.
Developers promise, that very soon people will be able already to charge the mobile phones and laptops in only a few minutes. Thus it isn’t required to change manufacturing techniques of batteries; the secret is covered in a new way of charging. The essence of new technology is simple: the charger has sensors, which supervise temperature, tension and current of a charge of the accumulator. These data are used for definition of that, how many a charge the battery saved up and with what speed it can accept it at present time. This principle of charging is based on the known phenomenon: the discharged battery is charged quicker, than loaded half and more. Thus, the Potential Difference charger at first charges the accumulator with rather small current, and then when the speed of charging falls, current starts growing to accelerate process. In order to avoid an overheat, it is necessary to supervise continuously the battery temperature, as a result the charger works in a mode of a series of impulses: that raises charging current, dumps it for accumulator cooling. During tests of prototypes of charging experts of Potential Difference found, that it is possible to load completely lithium-ion batteries of typical electronics and electric cars on the average in only 16 minutes.
For the last ten years the engineers developed a set of the technologies, allowing making transparent displays and other components of digital devices. The creation of transparent and flexible power supplies is more complex challenge as in the battery it is extremely difficult to make electrodes rather thin in order that they were invisible, and thus to make them extensible. The group of physicists from university Illinois created a lithium ion battery, capable to stretch three times and thus to develop electricity, which will allow to create completely transparent and flexible electronics in the near future. They turned lithium – the ion accumulator into a mosaic from the microscopic micro capsules connected in a whole by means of flexible conductors, braided in “snake”. As researchers explain, such design has at once several advantages. First, the small sizes of capsules and conductors connecting them allow making the battery completely transparent. Besides, flexible conductors between separate micro cells allow such accumulator to stretch without risk of a rupture of conductors or contact platforms.
Devices with transparent keyboards, electronics and the display appeared before, but the main problem for researchers has remained the development of “invisible battery”. As noted heads a team of scientists, they first imposed on the network of electrodes a transparent electrode gel, and then “packaged” it in plastic
Designer Paul Paylist presented an interesting concept of electric taxis in London, called Opti. The designer hopes that it will present a stylish taxi on the roads of London in 2025. The car will be equipped with a satellite navigation system, laser parking sensors, in general will be good “stuffed” and would be an ideal vehicle for carrying passengers.