The French scientists found huge viruses of an extraterrestrial origin in reservoirs of Chile and Australia. The virus was in one of deep-water amoebas and in ten times exceeded any of nowadays existing viruses on our planet. And the structure of its genes only for 6 percent is identical terrestrial, the others 94 percent – an extraterrestrial origin. The virus was given already the name – Pandora.Experts believe that the virus could arise on Earth, having arrived from other planet, for example, Mars. Dr Jean-Michel Claverie from the French university Ex-Marseille claims that a virus so big that it even it is difficult to consider under a school microscope. Thus the Pandora virus superficially resembles a bacterial cage and looks as a big dark stain. It is known that it can breed only being in owner.
Scientists found new proofs of that the huge ocean on Mars covered the most part of a surface of a planet billions years ago. The last answers were found in the photos made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from an orbit. Images show that the delta of the ancient river flew into the huge ocean which flooded to one third of the Red planet. By the words of Mike Lamb (the associate professor of geology at the Californian institute of technology in Pasadena) the scientists assumed long ago that northern lowlands of Mars represent the dried ocean on Mars. New research doesn’t give long-awaited absolute proofs, but confirm a hypothesis even more. The team studied pictures with high resolution of part of the northern lowlands, taken by the HiRISE chamber onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of NASA. HiRISE is capable to allocate details up 25 centimeters for surfaces of the Red planet. In particular, scientists looked narrowly at area in 39 square miles (100 square kilometers) which is part of larger area called by Aeolis Dorsa, being approximately in 620 miles (1000 km) from a crater Gale. Aeolis Dorsa has a set of the crests called by channels which are formed in river day when large objects are transferred by a current and lay down on a bottom. Channels remain on a look after the rivers which created them, dry up, helping researchers to track the past of ocean on Mars.
Specialists of NASA chose candidates who will travel to Mars in 2020. For the first time in the history of space exploration expedition will consist equally of representatives of the stronger and weaker gender. By the words of the employee of the agency, for travel to Mars they chose eight people who showed the best academic, physical and psychological preparation. In the list of the selected people from more than 6 thousand people, wished to travel to Mars, appeared Josh Kassada (39 years, the military pilot and the physicist), Victor Glover (37 years, the test pilot), Nick Heyg (37 years, the expert in explosive devices from the Pentagon), Andrew Morgan (37 years, the doctor of medical sciences, the serviceman). Into female part of team entered Christina Hamok (34 years, the expert-oceanologist), Nicole Mann (35 years, the marine), Ann Makkleyn (34 years, the test pilot), and also Jessica Meir (35 years, the anesthesiologist from medicine School at the Harward university). Each of them has rich life experience and possesses specific skills- marks Janet Kavandi the employee of the Space center.
Mysterious ravines on slopes of the dunes on Mars, found earlier in pictures from automatic probes, appeared traces of big blocks of the frozen carbonic acid. By the results of research an artificial ice move down and then evaporate. Strange ravines in dunes on Mars drew long ago attention of scientists. It was obvious that they couldn’t be left streams of the current water: they had constant width (some meters) and they came to an end not with a cone of carrying out of breed as normal ravines, and it is blind or small deepening. The pictures made the camera of high resolution of HiRISE onboard a probe of MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter), showed that the ravines arise on those dunes on Mars, which during Martian winter become covered by a frost deposit from the frozen carbon dioxide. Besides, the ravines arose in the early spring and during this period in some of these ravines were visible bright objects.
In the atmosphere of Mars there is more water vapor than in Earth atmosphere. Scientists from the American Space Agency NASA and Laboratory of Jet Movement were extremely surprised to that the Martian Prospecting Device MRO found a large amount of water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars. It is so strange to realize that in the atmosphere of the dry and waterless world there is a water vapor. The water is in bigger quantity, than in the top layers of the terrestrial atmosphere. For a long time scientists couldn’t understand from where water vapor on Mars. It appeared that the secret is covered in water and ice clouds of Mars. Similar clouds were found by the main scientific Mars Climate Sounder tool, established onboard the Martian Prospecting Device.
For the first time astronomers found a large amount of the pine forest, which salts could play a key role in emergence of RNA, which is the connection crucial for emergence of life in a meteorite from Mars. James Stephenson from Institute of astrobiology of NASA at the Hawaiian university in Manoa (USA) and his colleagues investigated the meteorite from Mars found in Antarctica during expedition of 2009-2010. Using an ionic microprobe, scientists analyzed clay streaks in a meteorite from Mars and found out that pine forest in it contains in quantity of 160 parts on one million. That is in eight times more, than in other known meteorites from Mars. Salts of pine forest could play an important role in life origin on Earth as they stabilize a ribose, the RNA important component which was “data carrier” before emergence of life. Molecules of RNA stored and transferred hereditary information between the first live organisms even before emergence of DNA. But thus RNA had to appear during chemical evolution in the lifeless nature.
The Mars rover Opportunity confirmed the discovery made before Curiosity. It found proofs that in the ancient time there was water on Mars, which is suitable for live organisms. Earlier data from automatic probes testified that Martian water differed extreme high salinity and acidity. In March Curiosity mars rover obtained the evidence that Martian environment in the ancient time was suitable for life. In particular, that water on Mars was almost fresh and neutral. Now results of work of the Curiosity rover confirmed this find. Mars rover Opportunity studied a chemical composition of a stone to which the scientists appropriated Esperance 6 designation. They fix a ratio of aluminum, potassium, calcium and sodium, and also iron in clay breed in cracks of the stone. This clay could be formed only in the presence of a large amount of water.
The Mars rover Curiosity helped the American scientists to find out that travelers to Mars will absorb lethal dose of the radiation, over 1 sievert of ionizing radiation, which indicates the need of installation of special “shelters” onboard of spaceships. By the words of scientists, they found that astronauts will absorb about 1,8 millisieverts of radiation a day during flight. The general dose during flight to Mars and Earth will make 0,66 sieverts, and together with stay on a Mars surface, can reach one sievert. Such quantity of radiation approaches to a radiation limit for astronauts during their career. The scientists came to such conclusion, having analyzed the data collected by the RAD device onboard a mars rover of Curiosity during its travel to Mars. This tool was switched on in Earth orbit in November, 2011. It is practically in the rover center that allowed to use it as model of the astronaut during flight to the Red planet.
Finding of sources of ancient water will help scientists to answer fundamental questions of emergence of life on Earth. The international team of scientists from Great Britain and Canada opened ancient deposits of the water, which age is estimated approximately at 1,5-2 billion years. This water was completely isolated from waters of the World Ocean and covered deeply underground. Interestingly that this water contains many all set of the chemical elements necessary for emergence of life. Scientists assume that the water found by them can be the most ancient on the earth and contain traces of any forms of life. Detailed research of this water will help scientists to learn how microbe life can arise and exist in isolation. Researchers from Manchester, Lancaster, Toronto and Makmaster found the most ancient water on a planet in mines in Ontario (Canada) at a depth of 2,4 kilometers by means of the most advanced equipment provided by University of Manchester.