The Sun is the star at the center of our solar system and is responsible for the Earth’s climate and weather. It is an almost perfect sphere with a difference of just 10km in diameter between the poles and the equator. The average radius of the Sun is 695,508 km (109.2 x that of the Earth) of which 20–25% is the core. Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit. Electric currents in the Sun generate a magnetic field that is carried out through the solar system by the solar wind. The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurorae. There are billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way Galaxy. Today we have prepared 10 awesome facts about the Sun that will arouse your curiosity.
A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars, stellar objects (such as brown dwarfs and neutron stars), an interstellar medium of gas and dust, black holes, and an unknown component of dark matter. Examples of galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million stars to giants with a hundred trillion stars or more, each orbiting through their galaxy.
By calculations of scientists through 3 billion years has to happen the collision of our galaxy of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy. But astronomers think that the meeting will be not their first meeting. Hongsheng Zhao from Saint-Endru University (Great Britain) and his colleagues analyzed movement of the Andromeda galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, galaxies satellites of the Milky Way. They used the modified Newtonian loudspeaker (MoND). This theory developed by the Israeli scientist Mordechai Milgrom in 1983, explains expansion of the Universe without participation of dark matter. He noticed that the Newtonian force of gravitation works only for the bodies moving with rather big acceleration, and doesn’t operate on small accelerations. And therefore acceleration depends not linearly on the weight creating it for objects of level of galaxies and their congestions.
The space telescope Swift helped to make the unique Milky Way galaxy map.
The orbital telescope Swift, which was started in 2004 for the purpose of studying of space gamma splashes, helped scientists to create the galaxy map.
Over creation of the card worked the astronomers from the American Space Agency NASA and the State Pennsylvanian University. With help of scientific tools of orbital observatory, scientists created the detailed galaxy map of an environment of our Milky Way galaxy.
Astronomers from Observatory “Gemini” received the most detailed to date image of the unusual galaxy NGC 660, relating to a rare class of polar galaxies. The galaxy NGC 660 is located at a distance of 40 million light years from Earth near the constellation Pisces. It is as if two separate star clusters: the spiral and lenticular. Such galaxies are called polar – they rotate the outer ring over the poles of the internal cluster. In addition, NGC 660 is the only other known polar galaxies in which the center has an old lenticular congestion. All polar galaxies are a result of the interaction of two separate star clusters. Some of them can be formed by the collision of two galaxies formed (for example, a galaxy can be formed by a merger in the future, with the Milky Way Andromeda).
Four billion years from now, the Milky Way galaxy as we know it will cease to exist. Our Milky Way is bound for a head-on collision with the similar-sized Andromeda galaxy, researchers announced on May 31. Over time, the huge galactic smashup will create an entirely new hybrid galaxy, one likely bearing an elliptical shape rather than the Milky Way’s trademark spiral-armed disk. Astronomers have long known that the Milky Way and Andromeda, which is also known as M31, are barrelling toward one another at a speed of about 250,000 mph (400,000 kph).
For the first time, astronomers have identified a stellar victim of a giant black hole, an unlucky star whose death may ultimately provide more clues on the inner workings of the enigmatic gravitational monster that devoured it. Supermassive black holes are objects millions to billions times the sun’s mass that lurk in the hearts of most galaxies. They lay quietly until victims, such as stars, wander close enough to get shredded apart by their extraordinarily powerful gravitational pull.
Astronomers have identified group of more than 675 stars , which seem to have been pushed out of our on Milky Way galaxy. The astronomers, Kelly Holley-Bockelmann and Lauren Palladino, say the group of stars they have identified have two characteristics that suggest they’re exiles from the Milky Way: they were found in intergalactic space between our galaxy and the neighbouring Andromeda, but their colour indicates that they originated close to the galactic centre.
According to astronomers at the University of Bonn in Germany, who made the discovery, the structure of satellite galaxies and star clusters around the Milky Way is so vast that it reaches across a million light-years 10 times as wide as the Milky Way itself. Existing dark matter theories fail to explain the arrangement of these cosmic objects. As said study team member Pavel Kroupa, a professor of astronomy at the University of Bon their model appears to rule out the presence of dark matter in the universe, threatening a central pillar of current cosmological theory.