On July 5, 2013 it was confirmed about existence of one more, 14th satellite of the last planet of Solar system – satellite of Neptune. The picture from the Hubble telescope shows recently opened companion of the Neptune at number S/2004 N1. The black-and-white picture was made in 2009 the Hubble telescope and a color picture of the Neptune in August, 2009. Thanks to new opening of this satellite, the number of the known moon round the last planet increased to fourteen. According to preliminary estimates scientists, diameter of the new S/2004 N1 satellite of Neptune is equal 16-20 km that is the smallest today the known companion of the Neptune. It so dim and small in a size that it is weaker approximately in 100 million times of the most dim star which the person can see with the naked eye. At Voyager-2 spacecraft flight by a planet in 1989, he couldn’t find this satellite. The author of opening Mark Showalter from Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence/SETI/ could find this satellite during research of arches, and as segments round the Neptune. For its search there were used about 150 archival pictures of the Neptune, which were made by the Hubble telescope during the period from 2004 to 2009.
On June 23 fans of the nature observed the colorful astronomical phenomenon – the supermoon. This day being in the full phase Moon passed a perigee. By data, the distance of the supermoon made 356 991 kilometers that on 27 thousand kilometers is closer, than usually. At this time the visibility of a disk of the Moon was 14% higher, and reflective ability grew by 30%. During the next supermoon it will be possible to observe star approximations to Earth on August 10, 2014. The “SuperMoon” term is very young – for the first time it applied to the characteristic of a perigee, which passed in the spring of 2011. The similar phenomenon is observed each one and a half years and is capable to cause different natural disasters or even unusual behavior of people. However, the majority of scientists is rejected by such assumptions and calls them prejudices.
After completion of Grail Nasa mission, scientists had an opportunity to study the Moon mascons. When last year two space twin devices finished the mission on studying of gravitational fields of the Moon scientists had a chance to learn more about the Moon mascons. Mascons are in abbreviated form concentration of weight. According to scientists of Grail Nasa mission, they are regions of a lithosphere of a planet or the natural satellite, causing positive gravitational anomalies. Mascons were found and localized on indignations in movements of artificial satellites of the Moon. Most often mascons are located under the lunar seas having a roundish form.
Found new research, that twenty five percent of lunar craters can store the remains of asteroids, which created them. The surprising result allows to assume that it is necessary to scientists a little more difficult, than they expected to find out, from what the Moon consists. By the words of coauthor of research Jay Melosh from University of Pardyyu future researches of structure of the lunar soil should work to prove that breeds on a surface really lunar, instead of arose owing to falling of the asteroids, especially unusual or exotic minerals. Melosh and his colleagues used computer models for imitation of formation of lunar craters from collision with asteroids. They defined that one quarter of craters on the Moon were left the asteroids flying with a speed of 26 800 miles/h (43 130 km/h) or less – improbably quickly, but not quickly enough that the asteroid was destroyed. Other calculations executed by team, show that at such speeds the asteroid doesn’t evaporate, and many its parts remain in the formed crater. If diameter of a crater not less than 20 kilometers, the remains of an asteroid tend to collect in the central dive of a crater, gradually collapsing under the influence of gravitation of the Moon.
On May 22 we will be able to observe bright and quite unusual occurrence when planet Saturn will come nearer to the Moon. This week is really full interesting astronomical of events. So, besides, that this week Mercury, Venus and Jupiter will gather on the evening sky in the form of a triangle with the parties about 2 degrees, we also will be able to observe rather bright planet Saturn near our natural satellite. Today the Moon enters a full moon phase. It will approach with Saturn as much as possible and “will concern” bottom edge of northern border of a terrestrial penumbra. Then will pass through zodiac constellations of the Lion, the Maiden, Scales, the Scorpion and the Sagittarius, possessing night visibility.
The Moon had a new crater on a surface thanks to a meteorite, which crashed into it in March, having arranged the largest explosion recorded by scientists from the moment of the beginning of its monitoring. The meteorite fell on March 17, having crashed into a lunar surface at a stunning speed of 56 000 miles/h (90 000 km/h) and having created a new crater of 65 foots in width (20 meters). Accident was accompanied by bright flash of light, which would be visible to any even with an unaided look. On March 17, the object of the size of a small boulder got to a lunar surface. It exploded in a flash, flash was nearly 10 times brightest which the scientists observed.
Scientists consider that asteroids were a source of water on the Moon and in Earth . Astronomers analyzed isotope structure of samples of a deep cloak of the Moon, delivered by mission “Appolo” to the Earth, and came to a conclusion that water molecules in them and in a matter of Earth come from the same source, which most likely were asteroids. It is considered, that the Moon was formed as a result of collision of a protoplanetary body, with Earth “germ”. Collision led to emission of a matter of hot cloud of debris and proto-Earth in space, from which was created the Moon. This cataclysm was considered as the reason of why its subsoil and a surface are almost deprived of water. This hypothesis was called into question in February 2012, when scientists found unexpectedly high concentration of water in lunar magmatic breeds. Astronomers under the leadership of Erik Hauri from Carnegie’s Institute in Washington (USA) found one more argument against the classical theory of formation of the Moon, having analyzed isotope structure of breeds of its cloak.
On Friday, May 10, we will be observed the first of two solar eclipses of 2013.[ad#Google Adsense-3 11] It will be a so-called ring-shaped eclipse at which the Moon from the point of view of the terrestrial observer closes the Sun not completely. The lunar eclipse shadow will concern Earth at 01.25 Moscow time in the north of Australia and will start moving through the Pacific Ocean to the east. The eclipse will end at 07.25 Moscow time. Specialists decided to carry out shadow shooting from a solar eclipse on May 10 from a board of the Russian Elektro-L satellite. Elektro-L will be able to capture a start of motion of a lunar eclipse shadow.
NASA develops a moon rover for search and analysis water and other materials taken in a trap of ices on poles of the Moon and demonstration of how water can be made on a place. Flight is planned for November 2017, mission received the name Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) and will have a week for achievement of the purposes. To be enclosed the squeezed budget of $250 million (into the sum includes the rocket to the Moon) the project managers plan to use solar energy for a food of systems of a moon rover and scientific tools. However in places, where there can be water and other flying substances, the sunlight appears time in some days. For the value of this mission, it is necessary to use nuclear power. According to the scientists the solar batteries of mission are more available and such way they will try to go. It gives the scientist the long list of affairs and very a short time.