Scientists from Peking University in China and from the University of Arizona announced their findings the brightest quasar in the early universe, powered by the most massive black hole yet known at that time. The discovery of this quasar, named SDSS J0100+2802, marks an important step in understanding how quasars have evolved from the earliest epoch 900 million years after the Big Bang, thought to have happened 13.7 billion years ago. The quasar, with its central black hole mass of 12 billion solar masses and the luminosity of 420 trillion suns, is at a distance of 12.8 billion light-years from Earth.
For those who yet don’t know, we report that the biggest structure in the universe is a Big Group of Quasars (Large Quasar Group/LQG). This group represents the large-scale structure of the Universe consisting of set of quasars, being in limits of one galactic thread. Unlike rather close super congestions of galaxies, big groups of quasars are extremely far and, probably, are predecessors of modern super congestions and great walls. The first similar group was open in 1982 and it consisted of five quasars. In total such groups at present is known twenty, the biggest structure in the universe consists of 78 quasars. This group was open for the last in 2012. According to scientists even if such structure will travel on the Universe with velocity of light, it needs at least 4 billion years to cross the Universe.
The universe’s expansion is accelerating, an observation that prompted astronomers to invoke an unknown entity called dark energy to explain it, has been further confirmed by new measurements. Scientists have used cosmic magnifying glasses called gravitational lenses to observe super-bright distant galaxies, giving a measure of how quickly the universe is blowing up like a giant balloon. They found, in agreement with previous measurements, that the universe’s expansion is indeed speeding up over time.
Astronomers by using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope were able to find several examples of galaxies containing quasars, which act as gravitational lenses, amplifying and distorting images of galaxies aligned behind them. Quasars are among the brightest objects in the universe, far outshining the total starlight of their host galaxies. Quasars are powered by supermassive black holes. To find these rare cases of galaxy-quasar combinations acting as lenses, a team of astronomers led by Frederic Courbin at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL, Switzerland) selected 23,000 quasar spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).
Astronomers using the partially completed ALMA observatory have found compelling evidence for how star-forming galaxies evolve into ‘red and dead’ elliptical galaxies, catching a large group of galaxies right in the middle of this change. According to lead investigator Dr. Carol Lonsdale of the North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia, despite ALMA’s great sensitiviy to detecting starbursts, they saw nothing, or next to nothing, which is exactly what they hoped it would see. For these observations, ALMA was tuned to look for dust warmed by active star-forming regions.
A team from University of California in Berkeley has found two gigantic black holes in the clusters of elliptic galaxies more than 300 million light years away from us.
Using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, combined with the gravitational lensing effect of stars in a distant galaxy, an international team of astronomers measured the disk’s size and studied the colors and also the temperatures of different parts of the disk.
Black holes are rarely in a quiet condition. They not only rotate but can move up and down of the home galaxy. Researchers from Brigham Young University conducted a study of this movement and came to the conclusion that both types of motion of black holes provided with energy one of the brightest objects in the Universe, such as quasars
Two teams of astronomers have discovered the largest reservoir of water ever found in the Universe. Water, equivalent to 140 trillion of all the water of world Ocean, surrounded a giant black hole that is in the quasar 12 billion light years from Earth. According to Matt Bradford,surrounding of this quasar is unique and original.