The Mars rover Curiosity helped the American scientists to find out that travelers to Mars will absorb lethal dose of the radiation, over 1 sievert of ionizing radiation, which indicates the need of installation of special “shelters” onboard of spaceships. By the words of scientists, they found that astronauts will absorb about 1,8 millisieverts of radiation a day during flight. The general dose during flight to Mars and Earth will make 0,66 sieverts, and together with stay on a Mars surface, can reach one sievert. Such quantity of radiation approaches to a radiation limit for astronauts during their career. The scientists came to such conclusion, having analyzed the data collected by the RAD device onboard a mars rover of Curiosity during its travel to Mars. This tool was switched on in Earth orbit in November, 2011. It is practically in the rover center that allowed to use it as model of the astronaut during flight to the Red planet.
Scientists came to a conclusion that Winds on Mars influenced its landscape more, than water. According to researches of the American Mars rovers and the European prospecting probes, the mountain on Mars has very peculiar form. Proceeding from all obtained data, after their careful analysis, scientists came to a conclusion that at all water, and a strong wind created mountains on Mars. Many scientists assume that the 5,5-kilometer mountain Sharp was also formed by numerous and powerful Martian winds. The group of scientists of Princeton University and the Californian institute of technology showed that formation of the mountain Sharp probably happened on the following mechanism: in the afternoon the air heated by the Sun, rose from a crater bottom, and by the evening process of return of air masses was observed back.
Planetologists hope, that Mars won’t suffer in October, 2014 during comet flight by it. In spite of the fact that Mars is far from Earth, is also as well as our planet periodically is under the threat of rapprochement with comets and asteroids. So, by estimates of scientists, in October 2014 the comet of C/2013 A1 will approach with the Red Planet. This comet was found for the first time on January 3, 2013 by the Australian astronomer Robert Maknotom in observatory the Siding Spring with the help 0.5м Schmidt’s mirror and lens telescope. A comet Maknota and her trajectory of flight watched about two months in the course of what it was calculated that there is a small probability of collision of a comet with Mars on October 19, 2014. When passing by a comet of an orbit of Mars its relative speed will make 56 km/s. Diameter of a shock crater in case of collision will be approximately ten times more than a comet kernel. Diameter of a kernel is estimated in the range from 8 to 50 kilometers. By estimates of some astronomers, it is supposed, that the comet Maknota can pass at distance of 41300 kilometers from the central point of Mars. In April, 2013 of NASA published new data according to which collision of a comet of C/2013 A1 with Mars is improbable.
The underground explosions are the reason for craters on Mars The underground explosions, which are involving ice, are responsible for two craters on Mars. The Mars twin craters are in the Thaumasia Planum, which is near to the largest canyon in the Solar System. The name of northern crater is Arima, but the southern crater has no name. The two craters have 50 km wide and show intricate interior features. The central pit craters are common on Mars, such as on the icy moons orbiting the planets in the Solar System. In this article I’ll explain the process, how the craters formed.
Curiosity’s information confirmed a hypothesis of reduction of amount of light gases in the atmosphere of Mars. There was found the most reasonable confirmation of gradual disappearance of the atmosphere of a planet. Results of research confirmed, that light gases disappeared from the top layers of the Martian atmosphere. For process of research of disappearance of the atmosphere the scientists analysed its structure. As a subject of studying isotopes of gas of argon were chosen. Now in the tmosphere of Mars is four times lighter argon-36, than heavy argon-38. It is much lower, than initial indicators for planets of Solar system. Such results allowed drawing a conclusion that gas disappeared from the atmosphere. First the planet lost easier isotopes.
The scientists from Southwest Research Institute made field studies of the Breat Kobuk Sand Dunes and during Arctic winter they found the presence of liquid water. This fact allows the scientists to suggest that the liquid water may still exist on the Red Planet. The liquid water could be stable at frost-covered sand dunes on Mars. The team was done the observation in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, where the surface temperature was 5,5 degrees. According to the scientists the layer of liquid water was occurring below the frozen layer. Also, the scientists noticed that melt-water flows formed on sunward-facing slopes. Debris flows with erosion tracks on the slopes of several dune fields on Mars. For water melting and for mobilizing the sand transport down there were needed temperatures above-freezing for a few minutes. Previous measurements recorded by Curiosity, suggest that liquid water would be stable during the warmest part of each day. When the solid ice, water vapor and liquid water coexist in stable equilibrium it will be the triple point of water.
The Researchers who observing the surface of Mars saw the first 3D view of the channels, which were buried under the surface. The discovery shows that an underground channel is twice deeper than the scientists thought, and this fact is accepts as a water shape in the surface of Mars. The researchers think, that the surface of Mars has been barren for the past 2,5 billion years, as the Mars today is dry and cold, because the most part of its water is an ice caps. But the channels, which are in the surface, hint that the Red Planet’s surface once was flooded by the water. The largest from the Mars channels, which engraved within the past 500 million years, belong to the Marte Vallis system. Marte Vallis is in the Elysium Planitia, which is the youngest volcanic region of the Mars, and the volcanism covered the most part of the surface with lava during the past several hundred million years. Because of this, all the new information regarding its history, were buried under the lava. Using the radar researchers scanned the surface of the Elysium Planitia. The 3D reconstructions of Marte Vallis, showed many details, under the lava covering. But this shows that the Marte Vallis channels were deep approximately 230 feet (which is twice deep than the researchers thought).
The Mars rover Curiosity of NASA, switched off, to wait out a Mars-bound solar blast. The mars rover will be put on standby after the Tuesday, when the SUN unleashed a flare in the direction of Red Planet. The team of rover views the shutdown of Curiosity, for withstanding of solar outbursts. The move can delay the return of mars rover to the operation, which is anticipated in this weekend. The robot perfectly operated in the Red Planet until Feb. 27, when it didn’t send the recorded data to the Earth.
NASA has narrowed the target for its most advanced Mars rover, Curiosity, which will land on the Red Planet in August. The car-sized rover will arrive closer to its ultimate destination for science operations, but also closer to the foot of a mountain slope that poses a landing hazard. It was possible to adjust landing plans because of increased confidence in precision landing technology aboard the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, which is carrying the Curiosity rover.