The space agency NASA published photos of Earth and Moon shot by device Cassini at distance 1,5 billion kilometers from a surface of Saturn and Mercury. Thanks to a successful foreshortening it was succeeded to receive rare pictures of high resolution. The part of pictures was received with help of the camera placed on the device Cassini which is in rings of Saturn. Another part of pictures was received with help of the equipment of autonomous station Messenger from Mercury orbit in 98 million kilometers from our planet.
Astronomers from Spain submitted the description of a huge storm on Saturn (known as the Big White Spot) 2010. To find out the phenomenon reasons, scientists analyzed the data obtained by the spacecraft Cassini. Researchers established that the speed of streams in an upper atmosphere of Saturn reached 570 kilometers per hour or about 160 meters per second. For comparison, the strongest hurricanes on Earth differs the speed of a wind in 140 meters per second and thus completely destroyed the majority got to a zone of disaster of constructions. The storm on Saturn led to emergence of the spot seen even in not the most perfect telescopes from Earth.
Rings of Saturn represent system of flat concentric educations from ice and a dust, settling down in the equatorial plane of Saturn. The plane of the appeal of system of rings coincides with the plane of the equator of Saturn. The size of particles of a material in rings – from micrometers to centimeters and then tens meters. Structure of the main rings: water ice (about 99 %) with impurity of a silicate dust. Thickness of rings is extremely small in comparison with their width (from 7 to 80 thousand kilometers over the equator of Saturn) and makes from one kilometer to ten meters. Lump of a material in system of rings is estimated at 3×1019 kilograms.
According to scientists, the Saturn moon Dione, can have the huge subsurface water, which is one more potential place of existence of extraterrestrial life. In Solar system there is a lot of water, and a number of satellites of giant planets are covered with water armors. As scientists claim under this shell are hidden, enormous oceans. Such space bodies as Entselad, the Titan, Europe, Ganymede and others, are objects of the most fixed research of scientists. Now to the list of potentially manned space bodies joined also the Saturn moon Dione. As well as many similar bodies, the Saturn moon Dione, mainly, consists of ice, and on its surface it is possible to make out a large number of craters. Diameter of the satellite makes 1123 kilometers. In general, this heavenly body very much bears a strong resemblance to other satellite of Saturn – Rea.
Scientists collected a first-ever global topographic map of the Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, using radar pictures from NASA spaceship. The new topographic map of the Titan represents the gathered pictures and data of radar of the spaceship of Cassini. It shows an unprecedented view of a surface of the Titan and has to help scientists to learn more about one of the heavenly bodies most similar to Earth in Solar system. By the words of Ralf Lorent (the member of team of the spaceship Cassini from laboratory of applied physics to Lorel, the State of Maryland) on the Titan there is a lot of interesting things: fluid liquids and movement of sandy dunes. But to understand these processes, it is necessary to know a district inclination. It is especially useful for those, who studies a hydrology and modeling of climate and weather of the Titan for which it is important to know about heights or lowlands for creation of models.
On May 22 we will be able to observe bright and quite unusual occurrence when planet Saturn will come nearer to the Moon. This week is really full interesting astronomical of events. So, besides, that this week Mercury, Venus and Jupiter will gather on the evening sky in the form of a triangle with the parties about 2 degrees, we also will be able to observe rather bright planet Saturn near our natural satellite. Today the Moon enters a full moon phase. It will approach with Saturn as much as possible and “will concern” bottom edge of northern border of a terrestrial penumbra. Then will pass through zodiac constellations of the Lion, the Maiden, Scales, the Scorpion and the Sagittarius, possessing night visibility.
The big hurricane on a surface of Saturn, similar to a rose bud, captured the NASA Cassini spacecraft. Scales of the hurricane impress: its diameter makes 2 thousand km that in 20 times more, than the biggest hurricane on Earth. Cassini allowed researchers to make out for the first time a hurricane on Saturn in detail. Wind speed in the hurricane center as it became clear, reaches 150 m/second. Unlike terrestrial storm, which move on a planet, the hurricane on Saturn isn’t mobile and is on its North Pole. On Earth hurricanes, as a rule, drift to the north, because of the turbulences of a wind caused by movement of a planet.
Rings of Saturn are continuously bombarded by rocks in space. Cassini spacecraft being in an orbit of Saturn since 2004, helped scientists to observe a picture of bombing of Saturn rings fragments of space rocks. Collision of these fragments with rings of Saturn lifts big clubs of a space dust and leaves traces in the form of hyphens on rings. It is well visible on the example of the photo of 2004, when the Cassini chambers recorded collision of rocks with rings of Saturn. Orbit of Saturn around the Sun is equivalent to about 30 terrestrial years. Approximately for the 15th year of this cycle, the night of Saturn becomes almost equal to day of Saturn. Just such period fell on 2009 that helped scientists to study in more detail better that happens to rings of Saturn.
For a long time researches observing the Saturn and its system of satellites, and came to a conclusion, that liquid lakes on Titan can dry up completely. The American Kassini spacecraft and its onboard scientific tools long time investigated the largest satellite of Saturn – the Titan, which is known that is the only heavenly body in our Solar System, without considering our own planet, which has liquid on the surface. Notorious lakes on Titan play on this natural satellite the same role, as water on Earth. Methane on the Titan takes active part in liquid circulation. It evaporates, and then drops out in the form of a precipitation. Everything happens practically just as and on Earth to water. Recently, scientists came to a conclusion, that on the Titan is not only methane, but also ethane, which evaporates not as rapidly as methane, but also it can not help the Titan, with preservation of its liquid on a surface. By estimates of scientists of team of the American Space Agency NASA