With fructose solution, Japanese neurophysiologists learned to do transparent any part of a body including a brain. The fructose solution is not breaking the structure and a form of transparent part. Takeshi Imai from the KyotoUniversity and his colleagues learned to do transparent part of a body, experimenting special solutions which can change refraction coefficient at different fragments of a body. As biologists explain, the increase in its value allows to make “invisible” molecules of fats and sugars in tissues of a body which usually absorb waves of visible light. During these experiments scientists noticed that solution of fructose possesses ideal coefficient of refraction at a temperature of 37 degrees. Biologists added in it the special substances suppressing reactions between fructose and some substances in tissues of a body. Biologists checked solution in operation on several germs of a mouse, and also preparations of a brain of a young and adult rodent. In three days of a soaking in fructose solution all test samples became completely transparent.
There are some crystal-clear lakes under the name “Blue Lake” in New Zealand. In the world there are some lakes with the similar the “Blue Lake”. Such lakes are in the USA, Croatia, Australia, and Switzerland. All of them received the name for purity and surprisingly blue color. According to scientists, there is most purely lake among all these transparent and pure lakes. The most pure lake is in New Zealand. The photographer Klauss Thymann personally checked purity and transparency of this lake with name the “Blue Lake”. Klauss Thymann opened for himself this wonderful New Zealand lakes during the expedition on photography of glaciers of the world.
The new 31-kilometer International linear collider (ILC) is ready to construction. It will be even more, than the well-known Large Hadron Collider, which has length of the main ring of the accelerator of 26,6 km. Of course the electron collider of ILC won’t replace LHC. Now the scientific group officially transferred the ILC project to the international supervising council of projects in the field of physics. International linear collider ILC will accelerate and push together electrons and their antiparticles – positrons. Collisions will happen about 14000 times a second at energy of collision of 500 GEV. Management of this process requires 16000 superconducting resonators from pure niobium, and for control of results. The team of developers already started discussion of questions of creation of the detector with specialists of the Japanese company Hamamatsu.
Scientists from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) took a serious step to successful creation of an artificial liver. The scientists revealed tens chemical compounds, which help cells of a liver to function and grow normally in laboratory. It means that million people having serious diseases of a liver will receive the chance to get a new artificial liver and to recover. The engineer of MIT Sangeeta Bhatia developed a way of temporary maintenance of normal work of cells of a liver for experiment in laboratory. It gave to scientists time for research of cages and studying of how they react to more than 12 thousand chemical compounds. After check of thousands cells of the liver from eight different donors’ scientists defined 12 connections which accelerate cell fission and help an artificial liver to function normally. Two of found connections especially well proved on a liver from young donors.
The group of physicists and experts could turn a mix of oxides of aluminum and magnesium into absolutely new material. Components typical for cement became glass. They show semiconductor properties, differs the lowered fragility, maintains action of hostile environment and easily gives in to processing.
At the heart of technology of receiving a new material lies the combination of several atypical methods for traditional cement production. The mix of oxides of calcium and aluminum melted the focused laser radiation, suspended in a stream of carbon dioxide and then allowed to cool down without contact with walls. Varying structure of a gas stream, and also a temperature mode, scientists could achieve formation of absolutely new nuclear structure of a material, which as a result was not crystal, but amorphous.
The American physicists created the super sensitive electronic skin not conceding in durability and flexibility to its biological analog and possessing ultrahigh sensitivity to contacts and vibrations. For the last five years scientists continuously work over creation of the material repeating on the properties skin of the person. In certain cases they managed to achieve considerable successes. So, in November, 2012 the group of physicists under the leadership of Zhenan Bao from Stanford University created the super flexible material, capable to act as a basis for synthetic skin.
Physics found, that the radium-224 core (a radioactive nuclide of a chemical element of radium) is similar in the form not to a classical sphere or an ellipse, and to a pear, which allows using it for check and specification of the standard ideas of how the atom is arranged. On modern representations, the core of atom represents the compact and dense object consisting of separate elements nucleons: protons or neutrons. Unlike the electronic cover identical on the device to all atoms, the form of a core can strongly change at change of a proportion of neutrons and protons.
The physicists from the University of Liverpool opened earlier not meeting pear-shaped core “, experimenting cores with an unusual ratio of number of protons and neutrons. On the modern representations, some isotopes of heavy elements, such as uranium, radium, radon or thorium, can accept such form, however it wasn’t confirmed experimentally because at the majority of such atoms the smallest half-life period.
Scientists created nanofibers surpassing in durability all composite materials. The created heavy-duty and super elastic nanofibers, capable to replace all existing composite materials used everywhere from planes to bicycles. Among participants of the project there are two scientists from Russia Alexander Goponenko and Dmitry Papkov. Engineers developed the most durable nanofibers consisting of polyacrylonitrile, the acrylic synthetic polymer, which was a version, which receive an electrospinning method. There is a pump at a design typical spinning design. The pomp provides uniform supply of liquid to the carrying-out needle, a collecting plate and the high-voltage source creating a field in an interval between a tip of a needle and a plate. The solution contacting to a metal needle, is loaded, and the charges entered into it are accelerated by electric field and involve in movement surrounding substance, why liquid is evenly accelerated and extended in a squirt. In an interelectrode gap solvent partially evaporates, and the stream turns into fiber, which is besieged on a plate and creates a porous layer.
Scientists created tiny implanted wireless LED devices, which delivered to experimental mice the mass of pleasure. Scientists from University in Saint Louis and University of the State of Illinois developed microscopic light-emitting diodes thinner, than a human hair. These light-emitting diodes can be implanted into any site of a body by means of a usual thin medical needle. Experiment essence is the following: at first gene engineers modified mice by means of technology of optogenetics, those are neurons of a brain on the light signal created by a tiny light-emitting diode “taught” to join and be switched off. Then closer to these neurons is implanted a light-emitting diode. Inclusion of a light-emitting diode activates neurons, and switching off on the contrary – deactivates.