Neurobiologists of Stanford University made nervous fabric of a rodent absolutely transparent, and by a usual light microscope in this transparent brain it is possible to consider the separate neurons, which are shining in the dark with yellow, red and blue fluorescent light. The brain has grayish-white color. This color results from multiple reflection of light on borders of cell membranes. To make nervous fabric invisible, reflection needs to be minimized. At first scientists tried to reach it by solutions of organic substances with specially picked up coefficient of refraction, such that on border of a cell membrane of reflection didn’t occur. Use of such solutions allowed to make nervous cuts transparent, but the method has essential shortcomings. Alternative way of an enlightenment of a brain there can be a full removal at cages of membranes.
Researchers from Lausanne University (Switzerland) managed to track career of workers ants. For this purpose it was necessary to watch movements of each ant, and also his relationship with other ants. The scientists went on a trick: they supplied insects with tiny tags with a QR code. Experimental colonies lived in the flat boxes – “apartments” covered from above with a transparent material. Special cameras round the clock watched movements of ants with different ages, and the computer on a QR code allowed watching each of one hundred insects. After the analysis of movements and social contacts of all ants, it was found out that in a working caste there are peculiar specializations. 40% of workers carried out all the time with a uterus and its posterity, 30% were the getters searching for food, and remained served as cleaners, and most often they could be found about garbage congestions. The duties at each ant changed with age. According to the researchers workers-nurses were the youngest, cleaners — are more senior, and getters were more senior also than that and others. That is the worker changed specializations: from the nurse to the getter.
Chinese Science Bulletin magazine published an article regarding the observation of lightning over the China. This huge lightning appeared in the upper atmosphere in Chinese district Shandong in 2010. The scientists installed the camera with infrared channel, which direction in real time was corrected by the WWLLN (International system of monitoring of electric activity). The scientists succeeded to record the lightning by using this camera. According to researchers, the upper bound of the lightning reached 89 kilometers over the earth, and bottom was at the level of 52 kilometers. Scientists estimated its energy at some million mega joules.
A team of research engineers from Tufts University, University of Illinois and Northwestern University have developed ultra-thin electronic devices that can dissolve in the body. As scientists say the new invention “Water Soluble electronics” can be widely used in medical applications. According to a study published in the journal «Science», the unit is fully “dissolve” after you have made all scheduled functions. The transient electronics are made of nanomembranes of silicon and magnesium oxide that are printed with circuitry much like a PCB, offering robust performance very similar to conventional electronics. Silicone is water-soluble but to prevent immediate disintegration, components are covered in silk.
Team of researchers from Harvard University and the California Institute of Technology has created an artificial and thus freely floating “jellyfish” silicon-based cells and living myocardium (heart muscle).The work of scientists may serve as evidence in favor of opportunities to put into practice the concept of re-engineering (reverse engineering) of various organs and muscle of simple living organisms. It also expands the concept of “synthetic life”, which previously implied replication of organic building blocks. The work of scientists may serve as evidence in favor of opportunities to put into practice the concept of re-engineering (reverse engineering) of various organs and muscle of simple living organisms. It also expands the concept of “synthetic life”, which previously implied replication of organic building blocks. A method of designing an organic fabrics to create a jellyfish, called the Medusoid, described in Nature Biotechnology on July 22.
A new sensory organ has been discovered in rorqual whales. Rorqual whales are a subgroup of baleen whales that includes blue, fin, minke, and humpback whales. They are known for their enormous size, and an accordion-like layer of blubber extending from their snout to their navel. This blubber can expand to many times its resting size, allowing massive quantities of prey-filled water to be swallowed and then expelled back out while filtering the prey.
NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has revealed that movement in sand dune fields on the Red Planet occurs on a surprisingly large scale, about the same as in dune fields on Earth. This is unexpected because Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than Earth, is only about one percent as dense, and its high-speed winds are less frequent and weaker than Earth’s. For years, researchers debated whether sand dunes observed on Mars were mostly fossil features related to past climate, rather than currently active.
Duke University Medical Center scientists have discovered a way to turn the scar tissue that forms after cardiac arrest into healthy muscle tissue, which would make a stem cell transplant unnecessary. To achieve this, Duke University Medical Center scientists introduced microRNA to scar tissue cells in a living mouse. These hardened cells, called fibroblasts, develop as a result of a heart attack (Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI)), and impede the organ’s ability to pump blood.
Invisible dark matter particles may regularly pass through our bodies, and dozens to thousands of these particles may be colliding with atoms inside us every year, according to a new calculation. However, radiation from these impacts is unlikely to cause cancer. Dark matter is one of the greatest scientific mysteries of our time, an invisible substance thought to make up five-sixths of all matter in the universe. Scientists think it might be composed of things called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, that interact normally with gravity but very weakly with all the other known forces of the universe.