Most techniques for generating electricity from heat need high temperatures to achieve reasonable efficiency. Solar thermal energy is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry. This high-temperature heat can be stored, thus allowing electricity to be generated on demand which is an important advantage of this technology.The first installation of solar thermal energy equipment occurred in the Sahara desert approximately in 1910 and was a steam engine without a kettle and fire but with a mirror system for sun light collection to heat water for the needed steam pressure.Solar Thermal Power PlantThousands of tracking mirrors, known as heliostats,directly concentrate sunlight onto a boiler filled with water that sits atop a tower. When the sunlight hits the boiler, the water inside is heated and creates high temperature steam. Once produced, the steam is used either in a conventional turbine to produce electricity.
Engineers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) found out that sandwiches from one-nuclear materials of a decanter and compounds of molybdenum can be used as the super thin solar cells. The solar cells created by scientists represent sandwiches from two different two-dimensional substances with one atom thick. In one of options is used MoS2 molybdenum sulfide with a decanter, in other – the same connection with WS2 tungsten sulfide. According to scientists, the counting on quantity of the transformed energy efficiency of new solar cells is insignificant. It makes only about one percent against 15-20 percent at existing photo cells. Nevertheless, at calculation on weight, one-nuclear sheets have no equal.
The solar plane, developed and constructed by specialists of Polytechnical federal school in Lausanne (Switzerland) flew by 1541 kilometers on a route the Phoenix – Dallas. The maximum height of flight exceeded 8200 meters, and average speed concerning the earth made 84 kilometers per hour. Landing of Solar Impulse plane was made on the night of May 23. The pilot of the plane, one of founders of the program Andre Borshberg, added one more record in the list of the personal achievements: earlier he made the longest, 26-hour, weeds by plane with solar batteries.
All charm of the portable solar plug socket is that it with ease fastens on glass with help of a sucker and converts solar energy in the electric. It perfectly will be suitable for recharge of small electronic devices, such as smartphones, a MP3 players, netbooks, digital cameras, etc. The compact solar plug socket received the name “Window Socket”. It was designed by design company “Kyuho Song & Boa Oh”. In the socket there is a small accumulator and the device for converting of solar energy in the electric. In a day the solar plug socket accumulates enough energy to recharge the electronic devices practically all night. According to the creators the socket 1000mAh can recharge with ease the mobile phone and other small electronic devices.
The companies SolarWorld and PC Aero declared joint plans on start of two new electric planes working at solar batteries. New models, prototype of SolarWorld Eone and the improved Elektra One Solar plane, will be presented on the International show of civil aviation of AERO in the city of Friedrichshafen, Germany. New Electra One Solar represents the improved version of the Electric Aircraft Elektra One plane developed earlier by the company PC Aero. The new model has the increased dimensions and solar batteries with a total area of 6 square meters on wing surface, which can generate more than 1 kilowatt of the electric power necessary for flight. Onboard lithium-ion batteries provide additional 1,5 kilowatts. The plane, which only about 100 kilograms without the accumulator weigh, can fly more than eight hours in a row, with the maximum range of 1000 km and with a speed of 100 km/h. The fuselage is completely executed from carbon composite materials. As for the second presented plane, SolarWorld eOne is a child of designers of the SolarWorld company with technical support PC Aero.
Engineers from South Korean university Hanyang developed thin solar photocells, which can be pasted on any curvilinear surface, previously having soaked them in water. Thin layer photocells are created on the basis of the amorphous silicon sated with hydrogen. Their structure and way of production practically don’t differ from this kind of solar panels. The innovation brought by authors, is that between a basis, the silicon plate, and a thin photoactive layer brings a metal layer. This fact allows easily to separate a thin photocell from a silicon basis, which can be used repeatedly. The process reminds gluing of transfers -a soaking in water with the subsequent transfer on the necessary surface. Authors showed that new thin photocells can be put on such materials as paper, plastic, a windowpane or a back wall of the mobile phone. Thus, initial efficiency of electro generation, which makes about 7,5 percent doesn’t decrease. The panels with quantum points have two nuances: on the one hand, panels have to be rather thin, that light of the Sun could pass through them, and on the other hand, they shouldn’t be too thin, that the delay of light was effective. To adjust ideal composition and materials – rather complex challenge, but it became possible with zinc oxide in their structure. From zinc oxide experts created nano wires, this provided interaction with light photocells.
The researchers discovered that a simple nanowire crystal can concentrate the intensity of the sunlight. This discovery means that the limit of solar cell efficiency can be increased. The discovery will help to lead new types of high-efficiency solar cells, also, will be used in the quantum computers and electronics. The crystals of nanowires have cylindrical structure, which diameter is approximately 10,000 part of a human hair. For this discovery the researchers involved a few years, and during the research, they discovered that there are rays of sun in the concentrate of nanowires, which have small area in the crystal. The concentrated sunlight yields a high conversion efficiency, when it converted into electricity. While the nanowires, which based on solar cells, can rise limit of solar cells efficiency, the single nanowire can concentrate sunlight up to 15 times. This discovery will have an important impact on the future’s solar cell technology development.
Researchers from the University of California at Los Angeles (University of California, Los Angeles) have created a transparent solar cells (solar cells), which is an important step towards developing technology that will allow the future to cover the windows in buildings of various layers which produce energy, rather transparent when it is well to pass a street light. Scientific work was recently published in the journal ACS Nano. A team from the University of California gives a description of a new type of polymer solar cells (polymer solar cell, PSC), which generates energy by absorbing infrared radiation is mainly, but not visible light, so now the level of transparency in terms of human perception of almost 70 percent. The device was made of plastic photoactive, which converts infrared radiation into electrical energy. Polymer solar cells are attracting great attention from the energy industry, as they have significant advantages compared to other technologies for the production of solar cells.
Sun spewed a two million mile per hour stream of charged particles toward the invisible magnetic fields surrounding Earth, known as the magnetosphere on April 5, 2010. As the particles interacted with the magnetic fields, the incoming stream of energy caused stormy conditions near Earth. Some scientists believe that it was this solar storm that interfered with commands to a communications satellite, Galaxy-15, which subsequently foundered and drifted, taking almost a year to return to its station.