The Sun is the star at the center of our solar system and is responsible for the Earth’s climate and weather. It is an almost perfect sphere with a difference of just 10km in diameter between the poles and the equator. The average radius of the Sun is 695,508 km (109.2 x that of the Earth) of which 20–25% is the core. Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit. Electric currents in the Sun generate a magnetic field that is carried out through the solar system by the solar wind. The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurorae. There are billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way Galaxy. Today we have prepared 10 awesome facts about the Sun that will arouse your curiosity.
Scientists from Peking University in China and from the University of Arizona announced their findings the brightest quasar in the early universe, powered by the most massive black hole yet known at that time. The discovery of this quasar, named SDSS J0100+2802, marks an important step in understanding how quasars have evolved from the earliest epoch 900 million years after the Big Bang, thought to have happened 13.7 billion years ago. The quasar, with its central black hole mass of 12 billion solar masses and the luminosity of 420 trillion suns, is at a distance of 12.8 billion light-years from Earth.
Most techniques for generating electricity from heat need high temperatures to achieve reasonable efficiency. Solar thermal energy is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry. This high-temperature heat can be stored, thus allowing electricity to be generated on demand which is an important advantage of this technology.The first installation of solar thermal energy equipment occurred in the Sahara desert approximately in 1910 and was a steam engine without a kettle and fire but with a mirror system for sun light collection to heat water for the needed steam pressure.Solar Thermal Power PlantThousands of tracking mirrors, known as heliostats,directly concentrate sunlight onto a boiler filled with water that sits atop a tower. When the sunlight hits the boiler, the water inside is heated and creates high temperature steam. Once produced, the steam is used either in a conventional turbine to produce electricity.
Stars are massive sphere of plasma held together by gravity. As you know Earth’s nearest star is the Sun at the center of the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 1,392,684 km.However, compared to many of the other stars discovered in the Universe our central stars is very small. Some other stars are visible from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points due to their huge distance. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations, and the brightest stars gained proper names. The below is the list of top 10 largest stars known in the universe:
The shock wave extending in a solar crown with a speed of 500-1 500 km/s, known also as Morton’s wave, gave the chance to specify significantly our ideas of solar magnetic field. When on the Sun there are coronals emissions of weight, on a place of their emergence swell the huge shock waves traveling round a star at high speeds. Where the magnetic field of a star is stronger, such waves representing plasma move quicker as lines of a field accelerate it. This unique line allowed the team headed by David Long from University college of London, to measure solar magnetic field more carefully, than ever. Distribution of a shock wave of Morton on the Sun is valid something probably for a solar tsunami: its speed depends on areas through which it passes. (Illustration NASA/SDO/AIA)
By the words of David Long they showed that the solar magnetic field is approximately ten times weaker than a magnetic.
The Solar system, as well as at comets, has a tail. To such conclusion came the American scientists supporting mission of the automatic device of NASA IBEX. It was brought by National administration of the USA on aeronautics and research of a space (NASA) to Earth orbit in 2008. According to NASA, to such results it was succeeded to come as a result of the complex analysis transferred by NASA IBEX for the first three years of work. The tail of Solar System consists of two streams of quickly moving loaded particles proceeding from our star from above and from below. Also in the tail of Solar System there are two more streams of slowly moving loaded particles on each side. Under NASA certificate, the American experts don’t know precisely, what extent of this loop. With help of the NASA IBEX tools hopes to receive idea of all structure of a heliosphere, and also to establish, where exactly there passes border of a shock wave on which there is a delay of a solar wind. Earlier interplanetary probe of NASA Voyager-1, started 35 years ago, crossed heliosphere border. The device became the artificial object first in the history which has left Solar system.
Astrophysics recorded and tracked the birth of positrons in the Sun upper atmosphere. This supervision will help to understand why there is no anti-matter in the Universe. Scientists presented the opening at conference of the American astronomical community. It is considered that during the first instants after the Big Bang there was an equal quantity of a matter and antimatter particles. Nevertheless, today the world is filled with a usual matter. This fact is a physical riddle as matter and antimatter particles had to destroy each other while they appeared in future Universe. Therefore there is a question — where was gone the anti-matter and why there is a Universe. Gregory Fleishman from Institute of technology of New Jersey (USA) and two co-researchers suggest using the Sun for search of the answer to this question. According to astrophysicists, on the Sun and other stars there are all conditions for formation of antimatter particles.
On Thursday from air base Vandenberg in California was started the rocket Pegasus XL with specialized solar observatory of IRIS device onboard. The satellite intended for research of processes in the atmosphere of the Sun, is successfully put to settlement orbit. The IRIS device is calculated on two years of active work. In the next month it will pass flight tests then scientists will start to work. The ultra-violet telescope established onboard with a 20-centimetric mirror will allow in combination with the new spectrograph and the camera to receive earlier inaccessible information on the Sun atmosphere. The satellite is made counting upon detailed research of the photosphere, the chromospheres and so-called transitional layer.
In December 2011 the comet Lovejoy (C/2011 W3), endured extremely close rapprochement with the Sun. The comet helped scientists to probe structures of a magnetic field in the closest vicinities of a star where no spacecrafts can get. Comet Lovejoy C/2011 W3 was found by the Australian astronomer Terry Lovejoy on November 27, 2011. Calculations showed that on the night of December 16 the comet will fly by at the minimum distance from the Sun — only in 140 thousand kilometers from a star surface. It is more than 100 times shorter than a distance between the Sun and Mercury, and is twice less, than distance from the Moon to Earth. Scientists were sure, that the comet completely will evaporate even before perihelion passing. However the comet safely rounded the Sun and left on the other hand that became sensation for astronomers.