On July 11 in Germany began special scientific meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which purpose is to resolve an issue of creation of the sea reserve largest on a planet at coast of Antarctic. Action will end on July 16. In Antarctic will be created the largest sea reserve, which will help to rescue thousands fishes, penguins, rare whales and seals from extinction. Now under consideration of CCAMLR are the offer on creation of the sea protected area in the Ross Sea of 2,3 square kilometers, including full protection of the area of 1,6 square kilometers.
Researchers from the Texas University in Austin (USA) and Marburg University (Germany) thought up a new way of seawater desalination. They created small electric field which removed salt from sea water. The new method doesn’t demand big expenses of energy (the device can work at ordinary batteries) and it is much simpler than methods of water desalting existing nowadays. Now process is patented and is in commercial development. For seawater desalination researchers gave the small tension (3 V) on the plastic chip with sea water. The chip contains two micro channels on which are built-in joint electrodes for creation of area of exhaustion of ions in sea water. Change in electric field leads to that salt “is pulled together”, goes to one canal, and desalinated water in another.
The Mars rover Opportunity confirmed the discovery made before Curiosity. It found proofs that in the ancient time there was water on Mars, which is suitable for live organisms. Earlier data from automatic probes testified that Martian water differed extreme high salinity and acidity. In March Curiosity mars rover obtained the evidence that Martian environment in the ancient time was suitable for life. In particular, that water on Mars was almost fresh and neutral. Now results of work of the Curiosity rover confirmed this find. Mars rover Opportunity studied a chemical composition of a stone to which the scientists appropriated Esperance 6 designation. They fix a ratio of aluminum, potassium, calcium and sodium, and also iron in clay breed in cracks of the stone. This clay could be formed only in the presence of a large amount of water.
Researches of a monophonic mars rover of Curiosity showed that in the past in Mars Gale crater there was a lot of liquid water.
In spite of the fact that Curiosity’s fourth American mars rover is on a surface of the Mars Gale crater less than a year, it already managed to justify the main goal of arrival to Mars. He confirmed availability of liquid water in Mars Gale crater where landed in the night of the fifth for sixth August 2012.
Recently the last Mars rover investigated the district under the name “Hottah”, called so in honor of the lake in Canada “HottahLake”. According to the research Curiosity, in this area there was a lot of liquid water at what there was a powerful current then there were dry courses, clay breeds, and also pebble enough.
In the same area the mars rover found traces of falling of fragments of meteorites which created peculiar shock hollows.
The sizes of the Hottah area make 100 x 50 meters.
Finding of sources of ancient water will help scientists to answer fundamental questions of emergence of life on Earth. The international team of scientists from Great Britain and Canada opened ancient deposits of the water, which age is estimated approximately at 1,5-2 billion years. This water was completely isolated from waters of the World Ocean and covered deeply underground. Interestingly that this water contains many all set of the chemical elements necessary for emergence of life. Scientists assume that the water found by them can be the most ancient on the earth and contain traces of any forms of life. Detailed research of this water will help scientists to learn how microbe life can arise and exist in isolation. Researchers from Manchester, Lancaster, Toronto and Makmaster found the most ancient water on a planet in mines in Ontario (Canada) at a depth of 2,4 kilometers by means of the most advanced equipment provided by University of Manchester.
Scientists consider that asteroids were a source of water on the Moon and in Earth . Astronomers analyzed isotope structure of samples of a deep cloak of the Moon, delivered by mission “Appolo” to the Earth, and came to a conclusion that water molecules in them and in a matter of Earth come from the same source, which most likely were asteroids. It is considered, that the Moon was formed as a result of collision of a protoplanetary body, with Earth “germ”. Collision led to emission of a matter of hot cloud of debris and proto-Earth in space, from which was created the Moon. This cataclysm was considered as the reason of why its subsoil and a surface are almost deprived of water. This hypothesis was called into question in February 2012, when scientists found unexpectedly high concentration of water in lunar magmatic breeds. Astronomers under the leadership of Erik Hauri from Carnegie’s Institute in Washington (USA) found one more argument against the classical theory of formation of the Moon, having analyzed isotope structure of breeds of its cloak.
French astrophysics established that a source practically all water in a stratosphere of Jupiter is the comet Shoemaker – Levy 9, fallen to a planet in 1994. Conclusions of researchers are based on supervision over a stratosphere of the gas giant, carried out by means of a space telescope Herschel. Data were obtained in the infrared range, with lengths of waves of 66.4 and 179.5 micrometers, where water has characteristic peaks of radiation. In work were used the spectrometers of PACS and HIFI established on a telescope. Made on the basis of data Herschel the card of distribution of water in a stratosphere of Jupiter was not uniform: in the southern hemisphere its concentration was much higher, than in the northern. According to astrophysicists, such heterogeneity unambiguously says, that its source is the comet Shoemaker- Levy 9, which in 1994 entered just into the southern hemisphere. Scientists specify that the water rising within of a planet would be distributed evenly. To other, more uniform distribution lead also other alternative scenarios, for example, water drift from the outside together with a space dust.
Researches of scientists showed that the giant squids living in thicknesses of water worldwide are part of the same species. New research showed that the genetic variety of a huge squid is very low, is much lower, than at other studied types. This supervision allowed the scientists to assume that there is only one species of giant squids. The scientist has very little information regarding the huge squids. Moreover, nobody watched live squids up to 2004. Only in 2004, there was submitted a video of a live huge squid. It is known, that they live at a depth from 100 to 1100 meters, their length can reach to 18 meters, they are predators which eat fish and other squids.
Using the images from Cassini spacecraft, the scientists found that the hot spots of Jupiter’s atmosphere are created by a wave named Rossby. The hot spots are cloudless patches of Jupiter’s atmosphere. This is the first time that the scientists observed the hot spots, and this is the best way to appreciate the nature of features of hot spots. Also the scientists made movies from the observations taken by Cassini, during its last flyby Jupiter. The films zoom in (approximately 7 degrees) the hot spots between the dark parts and bright white parts of Jupiter.
About the hot spots the scientists much knew from Galileo spacecraft, which descended into a hot spot in 1995.